Liu Huan (1983-), Master of Science (First Class Honours), The University of Auckland.

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Materials and Physic Chemistry/材料与物理化学

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发表于 2020-12-13 11:20:58 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
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 楼主| 发表于 2020-12-31 15:24:33 | 显示全部楼层
Article 1. Electricity and Stability of Electron orbits in Atom/电流与原子中电子运动轨道的稳定性

Author: Liu Huan, MSc (First Class Honours), The University of Auckland.

The real nature of electricity is the fluids or pulse of electromagnetic waves, rather than electron movement across atoms in conductor materials(otherwise, there will be a large number of positively charged protons bursting out at high speed, so that all electric conductors are the same as radioactive elements, which is obviously out of date). Consequently, the conductivity of different conductor materials, calculated by the same conditions, reveals the stability of electron orbits in atom. The higher conductivity, the less stable for electron orbits. The pulse of electromagnetic waves indicates that the electrons across different atoms fluctuate concurrently along the same direction. Consequently, the less stable for electron orbits, the easier fluctuation movement. The less symmetry of molecule structure, the more conductivity (more free electrons). For example, in the graphite structure unit within which each carbon atom combines with other carbon atoms by forming three covalent bonds , still leaving one free electron as the conductor of charge. For example, C60 is the highly symmetric form in space under normal conditions so that it is not the electric conductor. Once metal atom is synthesized into C60 to alter its symmetry of spatial structure, which leads to the unpaired electrons orbits, superconductivity occurs.  






This is the revised materials of Chapter 11 in book “Proceedings for Degree of Postgraduate Diploma in Environmental Science (3rd Edition).” published in 2016. Revised on 28/12/2020.  

References:
All the science terms in English of this journal source from Wikipedia:
https://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/;
本文所有中文科学专业术语引用自百度百科 https://baike.baidu.com/

Article 2. Van der Waals force and Dark Matter/范德华力与暗物质
Author: Liu Huan, MSc (First Class Honours), The University of Auckland.

Dark matter is a kind of energy binder underlay in the fourth dimensional space that polymerizes atoms, molecules and the other micro-particles of three-dimension spaces, which makes these micro-particles form an aggregate like a necklace, and thus produces a kind of torsion force, which is called space-time torsion. This conforms to the torque theorem of materials in mechanics. Gravitation, Van der Waals force and inter-atomic force all conforms to the nature of space-time torsion. The stable materials assembly binding by dark matter produces a non-linear buffer force against the external destructive force, which is the principle of torque theorem. The adhesive force of dark matter meets the principle of fluid mechanics. In this article, the torque theorem of solid materials in mechanics is introduced as an example, which is more stable and less disturbance by the other external forces as compared to atmospheric and liquid materials. Because of the existence of dark matter, the conversion of energy between different natures (such as conversion between mechanical energy and magnetic energy) must be based on the calculations of four-dimensional space. The conversion theorem based only on the calculation of three-dimensional space can hardly stand.

The molecular structure is usually similar to the internal structure of the atom, which leads to internal neutralization and shield effect during the revolution motion, but it is weaker. The reason is that the binder of the fourth dimension dark matter makes the movement of elementary particles inside molecules more parallel to the fourth dimension axis, while the motion of particles inside atoms is more vertical relatively to the fourth dimension axis. This also makes the electric field effect by the cutting motion of the elementary particles in the molecules relative to the magnetic line of fourth axis is weaker, compared with atoms. Therefore, in physical chemistry, the conductivity of single atom materials (such as metals) or single element crystals (such as graphite) is generally higher than that of multi-elements chemical compounds in common/normal conditions (not superconductivity condition), which is closely related to the adhesion properties of dark matter. Generally, the adhesive force required by single element polymer is less than that of multi-elements form polymer.Under the condition of high temperature, the internal/thermal energy of materials increases, and the movement that micro-particles collide with each other randomly accelerate, so the required adhesion force by the energy binder of dark matter increases. On the other hand, the closer to absolute zero temperature, the more slowly the micro particles collide with each other randomly, so that the weaker adhesion forces is required by dark matter energy binder. Therefore, superconductor conditions are formed at low temperature. It provides the inverse deduced/demonstrated methods through the data conclusion of molecules in three-dimensional space to extrapolate the adhesion of dark matter on the fourth dimension axis.

暗物质为第四维度空间中,聚合原子、分子等三维空间微观粒子的能量粘合剂,使得这类粒子像串项链一样生成集合体,从而产生了一种扭力,称为时空扭力,在力学上符合材料的扭矩定理。万有引力、范德华力、原子间作用力都符合时空扭力的性质。稳定型的暗物质微观粒子集合体相对于外来作用破坏力产生非直线型缓冲对抗力,这就是扭矩定理的产生原理。暗物质的粘合力符合流体力学的定理;本文把固体材料中的扭矩定理作为例子,与气态、液态物质相比更为稳定,受到较少其它外力因素干扰。暗物质的存在,使得能量在不同性质间(比如机械能与磁场能之间)的转换必须建立在四维空间上,仅仅是三维空间中的转换定理是无法成立的。

分子结构通常也跟原子内部结构一样,在公转过程中有内部中性屏蔽作用,但是更为微弱一些。原因是第四维度暗物质的粘合剂使得分子内部微观粒子相对于第四维度轴的运动更加趋向于平行切线运动,而原子内部粒子相对于第四维度轴的运动是更加趋向于垂直运动。这也使得分子中的微观粒子相对于第四维度轴的磁力线所进行的切割运动产生的电场效应更弱一些。因此,物理化学中单原子形态存在的物质(比如金属)或是单晶体(比如石墨)物质的导电性能在常态条件下(非超导条件)普遍高于多元素化学物质的导电性能,与暗物质的粘合力特性有很大关联。通常单元素物质形态聚合体所需要的粘合力小于多元素物质形态聚合体。物质在高温条件下,内能增加,微观粒子相互随机碰撞运动加剧,从而对暗物质能量粘合力增加。反之,越接近绝对零度,微观粒子相互随机碰撞运动减缓,从而对暗物质能量粘合力减弱。因此,超导体条件都形成于低温条件。这正好可以从分子在三维空间的数据结论逆向反证出其在第四维度轴上暗物质的粘合力,提供了反证推算方法。










This is the revised materials of Chapter 11 in book “Proceedings for Degree of Postgraduate Diploma in Environmental Science (3rd Edition).” published in 2016. Revised on 31/12/2020.  

References:
All the science terms in English of this journal source from Wikipedia:
https://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/;
本文所有中文科学专业术语引用自百度百科 https://baike.baidu.com/


Article 3. Molecular Attributes of ‘Revolution’ Motion in Materials/分子‘公转’运动与材料的分子特性

Author: Liu Huan, MSc (First Class Honours), The University of Auckland.

In the previous paper, the magnetic line on the fourth dimension axis is introduced to reveal the generation of universal gravitation. At present, the academic viewpoints are supplemented and modified as: atom is the most primitive material form of elementary particles; in our three-dimensional space, the motion model of elementary particles in atom can be simplified as the rotation of electrons around the nucleus, and the nuclei and electrons are the negative and positive poles of matter's magnetic properties; at the same time, the magnetic line on the fourth dimension axis is perpendicular to the three-dimensional space. These elementary particles cut along the magnetic line of on the fourth dimensional axis, thus generating electric charges. The existence of the electromagnetic induction theorem is the original driving force for electrons to rotate around the nucleus; for molecules with poly-atomic aggregation form, in the previous discussion, the dark matter on the fourth dimensional axis as an energy binder polymerizes mono-atomic matter, which makes the cutting motion on magnetic lines of the fourth axis, leading to ‘the revolution movement’. Similarly, the matter in molecular structure makes "revolution" around the geometric center of the magnetic mass line; by analogy, the original driving force of the earth's rotation and the revolution of other galaxies are generated by the electromagnetic induction theorem when the material properties of Yin and Yang poles in three-dimensional space are cutting the fourth dimensional magnetic line. Further more, the more asymmetric for the spatial distribution of electric charges in molecules, the higher the overall polarity, so that the angular velocity of molecules is faster and consequently the chemistry reaction is more active; moreover, the higher the ratio of total mass to total charge (M / E) in molecules, the slower the angular velocity of molecules, so the chemistry reaction is less active. This also provides the basis for the optimization of synthetic structure of polymers by 3D simulation of molecule movement.












原子是基本粒子最原始的物质形态;我们所在的三维空间中,原子中的基本粒子运动模型可以简化为电子围绕原子核做自转运动,原子核与电子为物质磁场属性的阴阳两极;与此同时,第四维度轴上的磁力线与三维空间垂直,阴阳两极基本粒子在第四维度轴的磁力线上做切割运动,从而产生了电荷。电磁感应定理的存在,是电子围绕原子核做自转运动的原始驱动力;对于多原子物质聚合形态的分子,在此前论述中,在第四维度轴上的暗物质作为能量粘合剂聚合了单原子物质,使得三维空间分子结构中的阴阳极性在第四维度轴上的磁力线的切割运动,进行着“公转”运动。相似的,分子结构中的物质围绕整体质量磁力线的几何中心做“公转”运动;余此类推,地球自转和其它星系公转运动的原始推动力,都是三维空间中的阴阳两极物质属性与第四维度磁力线做切割运动时电磁感应定理产生。因此,分子中电荷空间分布越不对称,整体极性越高,分子旋转角速度越快,化学反应特性越活跃;不仅如此,分子中的总质量与总体电荷量的比值(M/E)越高,分子旋转角速度越慢,化学反应特性较不活跃。这为通过3D模拟优化高分子化合物提供了依据。






















This is the revised materials of Chapter 11 in book “Proceedings for Degree of Postgraduate Diploma in Environmental Science (3rd Edition).” published in 2016. Revised on 31/12/2020.  

References:
All the science terms in English of this journal source from Wikipedia:
https://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/;
本文所有中文科学专业术语引用自百度百科 https://baike.baidu.com/


Article 4. The Principal of Thermodynamics: The Inner Energy, Energy Loss and Materials Perishing /热力学原理:内能,能量损耗与材料老化

Author: Liu Huan, MSc (First Class Honours), The University of Auckland.

As discussed above, the electromagnetic waves emitted by molecule motion is the transmission pathways/forms of thermal energy (or inner energy), and the collisions among molecules lead to energy lose. This energy lose is caused by the aging of dark matter energy binder, so the nature of materials perishing is the aging of dark matter binding micro-particles. Inversely, when the molecules of materials is heated by other sources of thermal energy, the frequency of molecule revolution is risen so that higher intensity of electromagnetic waves is emitted by molecule motion and higher frequency of collisions among molecules is caused as well. Consequently, this process is reversible. Nevertheless, the lower density among molecules usually leads to less collisions so that less energy lose is caused correspondingly.

















This is the revised materials of Chapter 11 in book “Proceedings for Degree of Postgraduate Diploma in Environmental Science (3rd Edition).” published in 2016. Revised on 31/12/2020.  

References:
All the science terms in English of this journal source from Wikipedia:
https://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/;
本文所有中文科学专业术语引用自百度百科 https://baike.baidu.com/


Article 5. The Principal of Thermodynamics: Specific Heat Capacity and Material/热力学原理:比热容与材料

Author: Liu Huan, MSc (First Class Honours), The University of Auckland.


As discussed above, once the transmission direction of generated electromagnetic waves is opposite to the incident angle of light waves, these two electromagnetic waves of the same frequency offset each other rather than strengthening each other. However, this is the reversible process as well. Only higher intensity of electromagnetic waves from external thermal sources, which have the same frequency as the electromagnetic waves emitted by the molecule motion of receptor objects, is able to ‘heat’ the receptor objects. However, the thermal energy, in terms of temperature ascending or descending capacity, varies among different frequencies of electromagnetic waves. Consequently, if the frequencies of electromagnetic waves emitted by the molecule motion of receptor objects is the frequencies leading to higher thermal energy, in terms of higher thermal  energy caused by temperature change per unit, then the specific heat capacity of this receptor object is higher! In this case, the efficiency of specific heat capacity is the not linear relationship with the increased frequency of electromagnetic waves emitted by materials (not received by materials), due to the buffering effects of dark matter.   













This is the revised materials of Chapter 11 in book “Proceedings for Degree of Postgraduate Diploma in Environmental Science (3rd Edition).” published in 2016. Revised on 31/12/2020.  

References:
All the science terms in English of this journal source from Wikipedia:
https://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/;
本文所有中文科学专业术语引用自百度百科 https://baike.baidu.com/


Article 6. Ancient Chinese Eight Diagrams and Application on Chemistry Reaction Rate/八卦与矩阵运算及其在化学反应速率中的应用研究

Author: Liu Huan, MSc (First Class Honours), The University of Auckland.

Ancient Chinese Eight Diagrams is created by the first King in Chinese race by literature, Fuxi. This is a tool to deduce and analyze the inter-relationships across materials or affairs consisting of five elements (Metal, Wood, Water, Fire and Soil) at both temporal and spacial scales, with the key philosophy of Yin and Yang (translation as negative and positive poles respectively). As discussed in this book, the basic attribute of materials contains magnetism, so the first one presenting this philosophy  is just Fuxi in literature. The method of deducing and analyzing the inter-relationships across materials or affairs by Ancient Chinese Eight Diagrams is the embryo of matrix and linear algebra. However, for the matrix discussed in this book, 0 represents negative pole and 1 represents positive pole like the matrix designed in Chapter 8, and the philosophy of this originates from the Ancient Chinese Eight Diagrams. Unlike Taoists who utilize this tool to predict people’s fate or fortune, this book aims to succeed the philosophy of Ancient Chinese Eight Diagrams and further develop this on bio-medicine engineering or chemical engineering.

Hypotheses: in a fixed spacial point, the molecule revolution motion frequently and regularly passes through this spacial point. If this molecule motion exactly passes through this spacial point, the magnetism value in this point is defined as 1; if this molecule motion leaves this spacial point, the magnetism value in this point is defined as 0. Then the matrix of this spacial point is defined as:

Matrix A = [a1,a2,a3,...]
Matrix B = [b1,b2,b3,...]

In this matrix, a1 is the magnetism value at time T1; a2 is the magnetism value at time T2; a3 is the magnetism value at time T3..... ;And a1, a2, a3 ... are the value 0 or 1. Matrix B is the same definition.

Matrix A is the matrix representing molecule A; Matrix B is the matrix representing molecule B. Chemistry reaction occurs between molecule A and molecule B. Only once molecule A and molecule B collides at specific intersection angle (or angles) of spacial magnetism curves between two molecule A and B, chemistry reaction occurs. The other intersection angles between molecule A and B collision can not lead to chemistry reaction. Consequently, it is hypothesized that molecule motion shows equal chances of occurrence in each spacial point along motion orbit, and the occurrence of collision between molecule A and B in a specific point is calculated as:

Chemistry Reaction Rate = Matrix A * (Matrix B)^T = [a1*b1, a2*b2, a3*b3,...] (Matrix B)^T is the transpose of Matrix B

In this matrix, if a1*b1 = 0, there is no occurrence of collision between two molecule A and B; if a1*b1 = 1, collision between two molecules occurs...; However, only once molecule A and molecule B collides at specific intersection angle (or angles) of spacial magnetism curves between two molecule A and B, chemistry reaction occurs. The probability/chance of this specific angle is proportional to the 360° during the molecular revolution. This matrix reflects the inter-dependent effects between two symmetric time spaces along the fourth dimension axis.     

Consequently, the spacial points of intersection among the motion orbits of different molecules can be deduced by test and 3D graph. Obviously, the orbits of molecule motion is sphere shape, forming electromagnetic waves diffused around this.

Increased thermal energy increases the frequency of molecule motion along orbit and alters the structure of spacial magnetism curves in a molecule, which triggers the threshold energy for chemistry reaction. Once the motion rhythm of spacial magnetism curves in synthesized molecule leads to higher thermal energy than previous molecules, this is the exothermic reaction; once the motion rhythm of spacial magnetism curves in synthesized molecule leads to lower thermal energy than previous molecules, this is the endothermic chemistry reaction.










This is the revised materials of Chapter 11 in book “Proceedings for Degree of Postgraduate Diploma in Environmental Science (3rd Edition).” published in 2016. Revised on 31/12/2020.  

References:
All the science terms in English of this journal source from Wikipedia:
https://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/;
本文所有中文科学专业术语引用自百度百科 https://baike.baidu.com/

Article 7. Biochemistry in a ‘life’ cell V.S. Abiotic Chemistry Reaction/一个生命细胞中的生物化学反应与无生命的化学反应

Author: Liu Huan, MSc (First Class Honours), The University of Auckland.


As discussed before, only once molecule A and molecule B collides at specific intersection angle (or angles) of spacial magnetism curves between two molecule A and B, chemistry reaction occurs. The molecular structure of both bio-molecule (such as DNA or RNA) and abiotic molecules can be changed by external electromagnetic waves. However, both change is not identical. External electromagnetic waves is perceived by cells or virus firstly, and then cells change the molecule structure of DNA (or RNA) actively through cell division process. In comparison, abiotic molecules is change by external electromagnetic waves passively or destructively. Consequently, abiotic molecules usually require higher intensity of electromagnetic waves to make changes than biotic molecules. For example, the required intensity of electromagnetic waves must be higher to break the chemical bond of ‘dead’ DNA molecule than the ‘living’ DNA molecule in cell.

Why does this difference occur? Because a living cell is able to identify or recognize the molecular structure of chemical molecule, so that cell actively and selectively binds different molecules at specific intersection angle (or angles) of spacial magnetism curves between them to make chemistry reaction happen, rather than making different molecules collide each other randomly as abiotic chemistry reaction. The ‘living’ organ utilizes bio-energy to drive chemistry reactions, emitting bio-electromagnetic waves, called life signals; whereas the abiotic chemistry reactions uses inner energy to drive or initiate.  

Consequently, the biochemistry composition of molecules is not the only consideration for cell to digest, but also the molecular structure of molecules which can be identified or recognized by cell. This provides the study focus for bio-synthesis in future!


This is the revised materials of Chapter 11 in book “Proceedings for Degree of Postgraduate Diploma in Environmental Science (3rd Edition).” published in 2016. Revised on 31/12/2020.  

References:
All the science terms in English of this journal source from Wikipedia:
https://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/;
本文所有中文科学专业术语引用自百度百科 https://baike.baidu.com/
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 楼主| 发表于 2020-12-13 11:26:47 | 显示全部楼层
This is the revised materials of Chapter 11 in book “Proceedings for Degree of Postgraduate Diploma in Environmental Science.(3rd Edition)” published in this website. The 'Chapter 10' of these articles are in previously published articles of this journal (in article Astrophysics and Quantum Physics).
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 楼主| 发表于 2020-12-13 14:56:30 | 显示全部楼层
Material & Physical Chemistry/材料与物理化学
Author: Liu Huan, MSc (First Class Honours), The University of Auckland. Published after graduation on 18/07/2016
Article 1. Electricity and Stability of Electron orbits in Atom/电流与原子中电子运动轨道的稳定性
The real nature of electricity is the fluids or pulse of electromagnetic waves, rather than electron movement across atoms in conductor materials. Consequently, the conductivity of different conductor materials, calculated by the same conditions, reveals the stability of electron orbits in atom. The higher conductivity, the less stable for electron orbits.
Article 2. Van der Waals force and Metal Atom/金属原子与原子间的范德华力
As discussed in article 6 of chapter 10, the magnetic axis from T3 positive pole to T1 negative pole is inverse to the magnetic axis in T2, the three-dimensions time-space observed by us. Consequently, the intensity of magnetism from T3 positive pole to T1 negative pole also determines the van der waals force across atoms in T2, in addition to the intensity of magnetism in T2. Obviously, the higher intensity of magnetism, the stronger van der waals force across atoms, although both magnetic axes (T3 to T1,  and T2) are curved ones when the object mass is consisted of multiple atoms (in this case, the curved magnetic axes clustered from T3 positive pole to T1 negative pole are still inverse to the curved magnetic axes clustered in T2) as discussed in chapter 11. However, in addition to the magnetism intensity, the curve equation of clustered magnetic axes, as discussed in article 6 of chapter 10, also influences the van der waals force across atoms, which means they are not simply linear relationship  between magnetism intensity and van der waals force. The test of surface curve equations of magnetic lines on dot object made of specific material is discussed in chapter 10.

Article 3. Molecular Attributes of ‘Revolution’ Motion in Materials/

分子‘公转’运动与材料的分子特性
As discussed in chapter 10, the movement of molecules must meet the movement rhythm of revolution of galaxy deduced in this chapter, which helps to analyze the molecular attributes of material chemistry as well. Consequently, the motion rhythm, in terms of both revolution angular velocity and revolution radius, is measured on the basis of similar method testing the electron rotation cycle and rotation radius as well.

The molecule revolution motion generates and emits electromagnetic waves like electron rotation movement in atom. The revolution angular velocity of molecule determines the electromagnetic wave frequency, and the revolution radius of molecule determines the amplitudes of electromagnetic waves. For the molecule, the method based on electromagnetic waves absorption does not only include the electromagnetic waves emitted by atoms consisting of the molecule, but also includes the electromagnetic waves emitted by molecule revolution motions. Nevertheless, in addition to the revolution angular velocity and radius, the magnetic curve lines of molecule and its intensity also determines the electromagnetic waves intensity emitted by molecule revolution movement.

Let’t decompose the time-varying electromagnetism during molecule revolution motion: firstly, the electrons takes rotation movement around the atomic nuclear; secondly, the electromagnetism inside each atom of a molecule takes revolution motion around the revolution center of this molecule; thirdly, the magnetic curve lines across each atom of a molecule revolves around the revolution center of molecule. In the third case, the revolution radius is simplified as the distance between revolution center of a molecule and the geometric symmetric center of magnetic curve lines across each atom of this molecule. There are three sub-time-varying electromagnetism generating and emitting electromagnetic waves in this motion.

Deduction: the higher revolution angular velocity leads to higher frequency of collisions among molecules of material, and the higher revolution radius leads to lower density among molecules of material. Of course, the specific frequency and amplitudes (or intensity) of electromagnetic waves can be adjusted over a broader range than light waves for this measurement.
Article 4. The Principal of Thermodynamics: The Inner Energy and Energy Conservation Law/热力学原理:内能与能量守恒定律
As discussed above, the electromagnetic waves emitted by molecule motion is the transmission way of thermal energy (or inner energy), and the collisions among molecules of material leads to energy lose. Inversely, when the molecules of materials is heated by other sources of thermal energy, the frequency of molecule revolution is risen so that higher intensity of electromagnetic waves is emitted by molecule motion and higher frequency of collisions among molecules is caused as well. Consequently, this process is reversible. Nevertheless, the lower density among molecules usually leads to less collisions so that less energy lose is caused correspondingly.

Article 5. The Principal of Thermodynamics: Specific Heat Capacity and Material/热力学原理:比热容与材料

As discussed in Chapter 10, once the transmission direction of generated electromagnetic waves is opposite to the incident angle of light waves, these two electromagnetic waves of the same frequency offset each other rather than strengthening each other. However, this is the reversible process as well. Only higher intensity of electromagnetic waves from external thermal sources, which have the same frequency as the electromagnetic waves emitted by the molecule motion of receptor objects, is able to ‘heat’ the receptor objects. However, the thermal energy, in terms of temperature ascending or descending capacity, varies among different frequencies of electromagnetic waves. Consequently, if the frequencies of electromagnetic waves emitted by the molecule motion of receptor objects is the frequencies leading to higher thermal energy, in terms of higher thermal  energy caused by unit temperature change, then the specific heat capacity of this object material is higher!

Article 6. Ancient Chinese Eight Diagrams and Application on Chemistry Reaction Rate/八卦与矩阵运算及其在化学反应速率中的应用研究
Ancient Chinese Eight Diagrams is created by the first King in Chinese race by literature, Fuxi. This is a tool to deduce and analyze the inter-relationships across materials or affairs consisting of five elements (Metal, Wood, Water, Fire and Soil) at both temporal and spacial scales, with the key philosophy of Yin and Yang (translation as negative and positive poles respectively). As discussed in this book, the basic attribute of materials contains magnetism, so the first one presenting this philosophy  is just Fuxi in literature. The method of deducing and analyzing the inter-relationships across materials or affairs by Ancient Chinese Eight Diagrams is the embryo of matrix and linear algebra. However, for the matrix discussed in this book, 0 represents negative pole and 1 represents positive pole like the matrix designed in Chapter 8, and the philosophy of this originates from the Ancient Chinese Eight Diagrams. Unlike Taoists who utilize this tool to predict people’s fate or fortune, this book aims to succeed the philosophy of Ancient Chinese Eight Diagrams and further develop this on bio-medicine engineering or chemical engineering.

Hypotheses: in a fixed spacial point, the molecule revolution motion frequently and regularly passes through this spacial point. If this molecule motion exactly passes through this spacial point, the magnetism value in this point is defined as 1; if this molecule motion leaves this spacial point, the magnetism value in this point is defined as 0. Then the matrix of this spacial point is defined as:

Matrix A = [a1,a2,a3,...]
Matrix B = [b1,b2,b3,...]

In this matrix, a1 is the magnetism value at time T1; a2 is the magnetism value at time T2; a3 is the magnetism value at time T3..... ;And a1, a2, a3 ... are the value 0 or 1. Matrix B is the same definition.

Matrix A is the matrix representing molecule A; Matrix B is the matrix representing molecule B. Chemistry reaction occurs between molecule A and molecule B. Only once molecule A and molecule B collides at specific intersection angle (or angles) of spacial magnetism curves between two molecule A and B, chemistry reaction occurs. The other intersection angles between molecule A and B collision can not lead to chemistry reaction. Consequently, it is hypothesized that molecule motion shows equal chances of occurrence in each spacial point along motion orbit, and the occurrence of collision between molecule A and B in a specific point is calculated as:

Chemistry Reaction Rate = Matrix A * (Matrix B)^T = [a1*b1, a2*b2, a3*b3,...] (Matrix B)^T is the transpose of Matrix B
In this matrix, if a1*b1 = 0, there is no occurrence of collision between two molecule A and B; if a1*b1 = 1, collision between two molecules occurs...; However, only once molecule A and molecule B collides at specific intersection angle (or angles) of spacial magnetism curves between two molecule A and B, chemistry reaction occurs. Please note: not only molecule revolution motion, but also collision among molecules influences the motion orbit of molecule. However, the motion orbit of molecules with constant chemistry composition must generate relatively constant frequencies and amplitudes of electromagnetic waves, showing that the motion orbit of molecules is relatively constant in statistics regardless of collision among molecules. This can be attributed to the fact that the atomic motion orbits must be influenced by the shape of fourth dimension axis in the universe (time axis) as well, which means that atom motion orbits must follow this curve and closed-up time axis, leading to the curve and closed-up shape of dominant magnetism lines on a cluster of atoms or molecules, and this is discussed in chapter 10. The emission and transmission ways of electromagnetic waves, which is caused by the rotation (or revolution) motion of atoms (or molecules) discussed in chapter 10, must be straight lines from the motion center point. However, the dominant, curve, closed-up lines of static magnetism around the cluster of atoms or molecules is determined by the fixed motion orbits following the fourth dimension time axis. Thus there are two factors determining the intensity of this dominant, curve, closed-up lines of static magnetism around the cluster of atoms or molecules: firstly the intensity of electromagnetic waves emitted by atoms or molecules. The stronger electromagnetic waves leads to stronger static magnetism; secondly, the stability of this fixed motion orbits following the fourth dimension time axis, which is influenced by collisions among atoms or molecules.

It is further deduced that the collisions among magnet atoms are less frequent than other materials so that the dominant magnetism lines are more apparent and stronger

as curve and closed-up shape, which means that collisions among atoms or molecules must reduce the intensity of dominant, curve and closed-up magnetism lines on a cluster of atoms or molecules. In the chapter 12, the dominant magnetism lines are compared between biotic cells and abiotic substances. The living cells are able to emit electromagnetic waves actively controlled by will, whereas the electromagnetic wave emission is random from abiotic units (atoms or molecules) influenced by the fourth dimension time axis. This is why this dominant, curve, closed-up lines of static magnetism must be less apparent around living cells than abiotic units.

Consequently, the spacial points of intersection among the motion orbits of different molecules can be deduced by test and 3D graph. Obviously, the orbits of molecule motion is sphere shape, forming electromagnetic waves diffused around this.

Increased thermal energy increases the frequency of molecule motion along orbit and alters the structure of spacial magnetism curves in a molecule, which triggers the threshold energy for chemistry reaction. Once the motion rhythm of spacial magnetism curves in synthesized molecule leads to higher thermal energy than previous molecules, this is the exothermic reaction; once the motion rhythm of spacial magnetism curves in synthesized molecule leads to lower thermal energy than previous molecules, this is the endothermic chemistry reaction.

Article 7. Biochemistry in a ‘life’ cell V.S. Abiotic Chemistry

Reaction/一个生命细胞中的生物化学反应与无生命的化学反应

As discussed before, only once molecule A and molecule B collides at specific intersection angle (or angles) of spacial magnetism curves between two molecule A and B, chemistry reaction occurs. The molecular structure of both bio-molecule (such as DNA or RNA) and abiotic molecules can be changed by external electromagnetic waves. However, both change is not identical. External electromagnetic waves is perceived by cells or virus firstly, and then cells change the molecule structure of DNA (or RNA) actively through cell division process. In comparison, abiotic molecules is change by external electromagnetic waves passively or destructively. Consequently, abiotic molecules usually require higher intensity of electromagnetic waves to make changes than biotic molecules. For example, the required intensity of electromagnetic waves must be higher to break the chemical bond of ‘dead’ DNA molecule than the ‘living’ DNA molecule in cell.

Why does this difference occur? Because a living cell is able to identify or recognize the molecular structure of chemical molecule, so that cell actively and selectively binds different molecules at specific intersection angle (or angles) of spacial magnetism curves between them to make chemistry reaction happen, rather than making different molecules collide each other randomly as abiotic chemistry reaction.

Consequently, the biochemistry composition of molecules is not the only consideration for cell to digest, but also the molecular structure of molecules which can be identified or recognized by cell. This provides the study focus for bio-synthesis in future!

Article 8. Dark-Matter Energy and The Perishing of Materials/暗物质能量与材料的老化

To be published....
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 楼主| 发表于 2020-12-19 16:33:22 | 显示全部楼层
In the previous paper, the magnetic line on the fourth dimension axis is introduced to reveal the generation of universal gravitation. At present, the academic viewpoints are supplemented and modified as: atom is the most primitive material form of elementary particles; in our three-dimensional space, the motion model of elementary particles in atom can be simplified as the rotation of electrons around the nucleus, and the nuclei and electrons are the negative and positive poles of matter's magnetic properties; at the same time, the magnetic line on the fourth dimension axis is perpendicular to the three-dimensional space. These elementary particles cut along the magnetic line of on the fourth dimensional axis, thus generating electric charges. The existence of the electromagnetic induction theorem is the original driving force for electrons to rotate around the nucleus; for molecules with poly-atomic aggregation form, in the previous discussion, the dark matter on the fourth dimensional axis as an energy binder polymerizes mono-atomic matter, which makes the cutting motion on magnetic lines of the fourth axis, leading to ‘the revolution movement’. Similarly, the matter in molecular structure makes "revolution" around the geometric center of the magnetic mass line; by analogy, the original driving force of the earth's rotation and the revolution of other galaxies are generated by the electromagnetic induction theorem when the material properties of Yin and Yang poles in three-dimensional space are cutting the fourth dimensional magnetic line.

In the chapter of physical chemistry, the current phenomenon should be revealed as the pulse phenomenon of electromagnetic waves between different atoms or molecules, rather than the flow of electrons between different atoms (otherwise, there will be a large number of positively charged protons bursting out at high speed, so that all electric conductors are the same as radioactive elements, which is obviously out of date). Therefore, the molecular structure is usually similar to the internal structure of the atom, which leads to internal neutralization and shield effect during the revolution motion, but it is weaker. The reason is that the binder of the fourth dimension dark matter makes the movement of elementary particles inside molecules more parallel to the fourth dimension axis, while the motion of particles inside atoms is more vertical relatively to the fourth dimension axis. This also makes the electric field effect by the cutting motion of the elementary particles in the molecules relative to the magnetic line of force axis is weaker, compared with atoms. It provides the inverse deduced/demonstrated methods through the data conclusion of molecules in three-dimensional space to extrapolate the adhesion of dark matter on the fourth dimension axis.

Magnetic mass lines in micro-particle structure: the concept of magnetic mass line is proposed in this paper. The magnetic mass line in three-dimensional space of micro particles is a function of the spatial distribution of both mass and magnetic field (magnetic fields can be measured by electric charges). Therefore, the geometric center of the spatial distribution of the magnetic mass line within the micro particle (such as a molecule) is not only different from the geometric center point of mass spatial distribution, but also different from the geometric center point of the spatial distribution of electric charges; it is the interaction point of the doubles. The geometric center point of the magnetic mass line is exactly the center point of the rotation motion of the materials aggregated as a whole (such as the rotation motion of electrons in atom, molecule revolution motion discussed above, or celestial rotation motion). It can be inferred that the geometric center of the magnetic mass line in a atom is not the center of the nucleus, which can only be interpreted to be closer to the nuclear center point, because the electron mass is much smaller than the nuclear mass, and the nuclear center point is closer to the geometric center point of the whole atomic mass. Therefore, it is too simple to simplify that the internal motion of the electron in an atom is defined as the rotation of the electrons around the nucleus. In fact, both the nucleus and the electron rotate around the geometric center of its magnetic mass line of an atom. This provides a basis for the theoretical calculation of rotational motion in astrophysics and the optimization of synthetic structure of polymers.
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 楼主| 发表于 2020-12-19 16:33:52 | 显示全部楼层
本文在之前的文章中引入了第四维度轴上的磁力线揭示了万有引力的产生。现今补充修改如下观点:原子是基本粒子最原始的物质形态;我们所在的三维空间中,原子中的基本粒子运动模型可以简化为电子围绕原子核做自转运动,原子核与电子为物质磁场属性的阴阳两极;与此同时,第四维度轴上的磁力线与三维空间垂直,阴阳两极基本粒子在第四维度轴的磁力线上做切割运动,从而产生了电荷。电磁感应定理的存在,是电子围绕原子核做自转运动的原始驱动力;对于多原子物质聚合形态的分子,在此前论述中,在第四维度轴上的暗物质作为能量粘合剂聚合了单原子物质,使得三维空间分子结构中的阴阳极性在第四维度轴上的磁力线的切割运动,进行着“公转”运动。相似的,分子结构中的物质围绕整体质量磁力线的几何中心做“公转”运动;余此类推,地球自转和其它星系公转运动的原始推动力,都是三维空间中的阴阳两极物质属性与第四维度磁力线做切割运动时电磁感应定理产生。

本文在物理化学一章中,电流现象应该揭示为电磁波在不同微观粒子之间的脉冲现象更为合适,不应揭示为电子在不同原子之间的流动(否则就会出现大量从物质中高速迸发出的正电荷质子的现象,以至于所有电导体都跟放射线元素一样,这很明显是过时的理论理解)。所以分子结构通常也跟原子内部结构一样,在公转过程中有内部中性屏蔽作用,但是更为微弱一些。原因是第四维度暗物质的粘合剂使得分子内部微观粒子相对于第四维度轴的运动更加趋向于平行切线运动,而原子内部粒子相对于第四维度轴的运动是更加趋向于垂直运动。这也使得分子中的微观粒子相对于第四维度轴的磁力线所进行的切割运动产生的电场效应更弱一些。这正好可以从分子在三维空间的数据结论逆向反证出其在第四维度轴上暗物质的粘合力,提供了反证推算方法。

微观粒子结构中的质量磁力线:本文提出质量磁力线概念,微观粒子三维空间中的质量磁力线为质量空间分布和磁场量(可以电荷量衡量)空间分布的函数。因此微观粒子(比如一个分子)的质量磁力线的空间分布几何中心既有异于质量空间分布的几何中心点,也不同于电荷量空间分布的几何中心点;而是二者的相互作用点。而这个质量磁力线的空间几何中心点正好是物质集合体自转运动的中心点(不管是微观原子、分子自旋运动,还是天体旋转运动)。可以推测出,简单原子中的质量磁力线几何中心不是原子核的中心,仅仅可以定义为更加接近于原子核中心点,因为电子质量相对于原子核的质量小很多,原子核中心点近似于整个原子质量几何中心点。所以电子内部运动简化为电子围绕原子核做自转运动也是过于简单的理解。其实是原子核与电子围绕其质量磁力线几何中心做自旋运动。这对于天体物理学中旋转运动理论计算和高分子合成结构提供了理论依据。
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 楼主| 发表于 2020-12-20 14:38:30 | 显示全部楼层
本文在之前的文章中引入了第四维度轴上的磁力线揭示了万有引力的产生。现今补充修改如下观点:原子是基本粒子最原始的物质形态;我们所在的三维空间中,原子中的基本粒子运动模型可以简化为电子围绕原子核做自转运动,原子核与电子为物质磁场属性的阴阳两极;与此同时,第四维度轴上的磁力线与三维空间垂直,阴阳两极基本粒子在第四维度轴的磁力线上做切割运动,从而产生了电荷。电磁感应定理的存在,是电子围绕原子核做自转运动的原始驱动力;对于多原子物质聚合形态的分子,在此前论述中,在第四维度轴上的暗物质作为能量粘合剂聚合了单原子物质,使得三维空间分子结构中的阴阳极性在第四维度轴上的磁力线的切割运动,进行着“公转”运动。相似的,分子结构中的物质围绕整体质量磁力线的几何中心做“公转”运动;余此类推,地球自转和其它星系公转运动的原始推动力,都是三维空间中的阴阳两极物质属性与第四维度磁力线做切割运动时电磁感应定理产生。

本文在物理化学一章中,电流现象应该揭示为电磁波在不同微观粒子之间的脉冲现象更为合适,不应揭示为电子在不同原子之间的流动(否则就会出现大量从物质中高速迸发出的正电荷质子的现象,以至于所有电导体都跟放射线元素一样,这很明显是过时的理论理解)。所以分子结构通常也跟原子内部结构一样,在公转过程中有内部中性屏蔽作用,但是更为微弱一些。原因是第四维度暗物质的粘合剂使得分子内部微观粒子相对于第四维度轴的运动更加趋向于平行切线运动,而原子内部粒子相对于第四维度轴的运动是更加趋向于垂直运动。这也使得分子中的微观粒子相对于第四维度轴的磁力线所进行的切割运动产生的电场效应更弱一些。因此,物理化学中单原子形态存在的物质(比如金属)或是单晶体(比如C60)物质的导电性能普遍高于多元素化学物质的导电性能,与暗物质的粘合力特性有很大关联。通常单元素物质形态聚合体所需要的粘合力小于多元素物质形态聚合体。这正好可以从分子在三维空间的数据结论逆向反证出其在第四维度轴上暗物质的粘合力,提供了反证推算方法。

微观粒子结构中的质量磁力线:本文提出质量磁力线概念,微观粒子三维空间中的质量磁力线为质量空间分布和磁场量(可以电荷量衡量)空间分布的函数。因此微观粒子(比如一个分子)的质量磁力线的空间分布几何中心既有异于质量空间分布的几何中心点,也不同于电荷量空间分布的几何中心点;而是二者的相互作用点。而这个质量磁力线的空间几何中心点正好是物质集合体自转运动的中心点(不管是微观原子、分子自旋运动,还是天体旋转运动)。可以推测出,简单原子中的质量磁力线几何中心不是原子核的中心,仅仅可以定义为更加接近于原子核中心点,因为电子质量相对于原子核的质量小很多,原子核中心点近似于整个原子质量几何中心点。所以电子内部运动简化为电子围绕原子核做自转运动也是过于简单的理解。其实是原子核与电子围绕其质量磁力线几何中心做自旋运动。这对于天体物理学中旋转运动理论计算和高分子合成结构的优化提供了理论依据进行3D分子运动模拟。












In the previous paper, the magnetic line on the fourth dimension axis is introduced to reveal the generation of universal gravitation. At present, the academic viewpoints are supplemented and modified as: atom is the most primitive material form of elementary particles; in our three-dimensional space, the motion model of elementary particles in atom can be simplified as the rotation of electrons around the nucleus, and the nuclei and electrons are the negative and positive poles of matter's magnetic properties; at the same time, the magnetic line on the fourth dimension axis is perpendicular to the three-dimensional space. These elementary particles cut along the magnetic line of on the fourth dimensional axis, thus generating electric charges. The existence of the electromagnetic induction theorem is the original driving force for electrons to rotate around the nucleus; for molecules with poly-atomic aggregation form, in the previous discussion, the dark matter on the fourth dimensional axis as an energy binder polymerizes mono-atomic matter, which makes the cutting motion on magnetic lines of the fourth axis, leading to ‘the revolution movement’. Similarly, the matter in molecular structure makes "revolution" around the geometric center of the magnetic mass line; by analogy, the original driving force of the earth's rotation and the revolution of other galaxies are generated by the electromagnetic induction theorem when the material properties of Yin and Yang poles in three-dimensional space are cutting the fourth dimensional magnetic line.

In the chapter of physical chemistry, the current phenomenon should be revealed as the pulse phenomenon of electromagnetic waves between different atoms or molecules, rather than the flow of electrons between different atoms (otherwise, there will be a large number of positively charged protons bursting out at high speed, so that all electric conductors are the same as radioactive elements, which is obviously out of date). Therefore, the molecular structure is usually similar to the internal structure of the atom, which leads to internal neutralization and shield effect during the revolution motion, but it is weaker. The reason is that the binder of the fourth dimension dark matter makes the movement of elementary particles inside molecules more parallel to the fourth dimension axis, while the motion of particles inside atoms is more vertical relatively to the fourth dimension axis. This also makes the electric field effect by the cutting motion of the elementary particles in the molecules relative to the magnetic line of fourth axis is weaker, compared with atoms. Therefore, in physical chemistry, the conductivity of single atom materials (such as metals) or single element crystals (such as C60) is generally higher than that of multi-elements chemical compounds, which is closely related to the adhesion properties of dark matter. Generally, the adhesive force required by single element polymer is less than that of multi-elements form polymer. It provides the inverse deduced/demonstrated methods through the data conclusion of molecules in three-dimensional space to extrapolate the adhesion of dark matter on the fourth dimension axis.

Magnetic mass lines in micro-particle structure: the concept of magnetic mass line is proposed in this paper. The magnetic mass line in three-dimensional space of micro particles is a function of the spatial distribution of both mass and magnetic field (magnetic fields can be measured by electric charges). Therefore, the geometric center of the spatial distribution of the magnetic mass line within the micro particle (such as a molecule) is not only different from the geometric center point of mass spatial distribution, but also different from the geometric center point of the spatial distribution of electric charges; it is the interaction point of the doubles. The geometric center point of the magnetic mass line is exactly the center point of the rotation motion of the materials aggregated as a whole (such as the rotation motion of electrons in atom, molecule revolution motion discussed above, or celestial rotation motion). It can be inferred that the geometric center of the magnetic mass line in a atom is not the center of the nucleus, which can only be interpreted to be closer to the nuclear center point, because the electron mass is much smaller than the nuclear mass, and the nuclear center point is closer to the geometric center point of the whole atomic mass. Therefore, it is too simple to simplify that the internal motion of the electron in an atom is defined as the rotation of the electrons around the nucleus. In fact, both the nucleus and the electron rotate around the geometric center of its magnetic mass line of an atom. This provides a basis for the theoretical calculation of rotational motion in astrophysics and the optimization of synthetic structure of polymers by 3D simulation of molecule movement.
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 楼主| 发表于 2020-12-20 14:46:10 | 显示全部楼层
本文在之前的文章中引入了第四维度轴上的磁力线揭示了万有引力的产生。现今补充修改如下观点:原子是基本粒子最原始的物质形态;我们所在的三维空间中,原子中的基本粒子运动模型可以简化为电子围绕原子核做自转运动,原子核与电子为物质磁场属性的阴阳两极;与此同时,第四维度轴上的磁力线与三维空间垂直,阴阳两极基本粒子在第四维度轴的磁力线上做切割运动,从而产生了电荷。电磁感应定理的存在,是电子围绕原子核做自转运动的原始驱动力;对于多原子物质聚合形态的分子,在此前论述中,在第四维度轴上的暗物质作为能量粘合剂聚合了单原子物质,使得三维空间分子结构中的阴阳极性在第四维度轴上的磁力线的切割运动,进行着“公转”运动。相似的,分子结构中的物质围绕整体质量磁力线的几何中心做“公转”运动;余此类推,地球自转和其它星系公转运动的原始推动力,都是三维空间中的阴阳两极物质属性与第四维度磁力线做切割运动时电磁感应定理产生。

本文在物理化学一章中,电流现象应该揭示为电磁波在不同微观粒子之间的脉冲现象更为合适,不应揭示为电子在不同原子之间的流动(否则就会出现大量从物质中高速迸发出的正电荷质子的现象,以至于所有电导体都跟放射线元素一样,这很明显是过时的理论理解)。所以分子结构通常也跟原子内部结构一样,在公转过程中有内部中性屏蔽作用,但是更为微弱一些。原因是第四维度暗物质的粘合剂使得分子内部微观粒子相对于第四维度轴的运动更加趋向于平行切线运动,而原子内部粒子相对于第四维度轴的运动是更加趋向于垂直运动。这也使得分子中的微观粒子相对于第四维度轴的磁力线所进行的切割运动产生的电场效应更弱一些。因此,物理化学中单原子形态存在的物质(比如金属)或是单晶体(比如C60)物质的导电性能普遍高于多元素化学物质的导电性能,与暗物质的粘合力特性有很大关联。通常单元素物质形态聚合体所需要的粘合力小于多元素物质形态聚合体。这正好可以从分子在三维空间的数据结论逆向反证出其在第四维度轴上暗物质的粘合力,提供了反证推算方法。

微观粒子结构中的质量磁力线:本文提出质量磁力线概念,微观粒子三维空间中的质量磁力线为质量空间分布和磁场量(可以电荷量衡量)空间分布的函数。因此微观粒子(比如一个分子)的质量磁力线的空间分布几何中心既有异于质量空间分布的几何中心点,也不同于电荷量空间分布的几何中心点;而是二者的相互作用点。而这个质量磁力线的空间几何中心点正好是物质集合体自转运动的中心点(不管是微观原子、分子自旋运动,还是天体旋转运动)。可以推测出,简单原子中的质量磁力线几何中心不是原子核的中心,仅仅可以定义为更加接近于原子核中心点,因为电子质量相对于原子核的质量小很多,原子核中心点近似于整个原子质量几何中心点。所以电子内部运动简化为电子围绕原子核做自转运动也是过于简单的理解。其实是原子核与电子围绕其质量磁力线几何中心做自旋运动。这对于天体物理学中旋转运动理论计算和高分子合成结构的优化提供了理论依据进行3D分子运动模拟。



In the previous paper, the magnetic line on the fourth dimension axis is introduced to reveal the generation of universal gravitation. At present, the academic viewpoints are supplemented and modified as: atom is the most primitive material form of elementary particles; in our three-dimensional space, the motion model of elementary particles in atom can be simplified as the rotation of electrons around the nucleus, and the nuclei and electrons are the negative and positive poles of matter's magnetic properties; at the same time, the magnetic line on the fourth dimension axis is perpendicular to the three-dimensional space. These elementary particles cut along the magnetic line of on the fourth dimensional axis, thus generating electric charges. The existence of the electromagnetic induction theorem is the original driving force for electrons to rotate around the nucleus; for molecules with poly-atomic aggregation form, in the previous discussion, the dark matter on the fourth dimensional axis as an energy binder polymerizes mono-atomic matter, which makes the cutting motion on magnetic lines of the fourth axis, leading to ‘the revolution movement’. Similarly, the matter in molecular structure makes "revolution" around the geometric center of the magnetic mass line; by analogy, the original driving force of the earth's rotation and the revolution of other galaxies are generated by the electromagnetic induction theorem when the material properties of Yin and Yang poles in three-dimensional space are cutting the fourth dimensional magnetic line.

In the chapter of physical chemistry, the current phenomenon should be revealed as the pulse phenomenon of electromagnetic waves between different atoms or molecules, rather than the flow of electrons between different atoms (otherwise, there will be a large number of positively charged protons bursting out at high speed, so that all electric conductors are the same as radioactive elements, which is obviously out of date). Therefore, the molecular structure is usually similar to the internal structure of the atom, which leads to internal neutralization and shield effect during the revolution motion, but it is weaker. The reason is that the binder of the fourth dimension dark matter makes the movement of elementary particles inside molecules more parallel to the fourth dimension axis, while the motion of particles inside atoms is more vertical relatively to the fourth dimension axis. This also makes the electric field effect by the cutting motion of the elementary particles in the molecules relative to the magnetic line of fourth axis is weaker, compared with atoms. Therefore, in physical chemistry, the conductivity of single atom materials (such as metals) or single element crystals (such as C60) is generally higher than that of multi-elements chemical compounds, which is closely related to the adhesion properties of dark matter. Generally, the adhesive force required by single element polymer is less than that of multi-elements form polymer. It provides the inverse deduced/demonstrated methods through the data conclusion of molecules in three-dimensional space to extrapolate the adhesion of dark matter on the fourth dimension axis.

Magnetic mass lines in micro-particle structure: the concept of magnetic mass line is proposed in this paper. The magnetic mass line in three-dimensional space of micro particles is a function of the spatial distribution of both mass and magnetic field (magnetic fields can be measured by electric charges). Therefore, the geometric center of the spatial distribution of the magnetic mass line within the micro particle (such as a molecule) is not only different from the geometric center point of mass spatial distribution, but also different from the geometric center point of the spatial distribution of electric charges; it is the interaction point of the doubles. The geometric center point of the magnetic mass line is exactly the center point of the rotation motion of the materials aggregated as a whole (such as the rotation motion of electrons in atom, molecule revolution motion discussed above, or celestial rotation motion). It can be inferred that the geometric center of the magnetic mass line in a atom is not the center of the nucleus, which can only be interpreted to be closer to the nuclear center point, because the electron mass is much smaller than the nuclear mass, and the nuclear center point is closer to the geometric center point of the whole atomic mass. Therefore, it is too simple to simplify that the internal motion of the electron in an atom is defined as the rotation of the electrons around the nucleus. In fact, both the nucleus and the electron rotate around the geometric center of its magnetic mass line of an atom. This provides a basis for the theoretical calculation of rotational motion in astrophysics and the optimization of synthetic structure of polymers by 3D simulation of molecule movement.
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 楼主| 发表于 2020-12-23 08:57:50 | 显示全部楼层
本文在之前的文章中引入了第四维度轴上的磁力线揭示了万有引力的产生。现今补充修改如下观点:原子是基本粒子最原始的物质形态;我们所在的三维空间中,原子中的基本粒子运动模型可以简化为电子围绕原子核做自转运动,原子核与电子为物质磁场属性的阴阳两极;与此同时,第四维度轴上的磁力线与三维空间垂直,阴阳两极基本粒子在第四维度轴的磁力线上做切割运动,从而产生了电荷。电磁感应定理的存在,是电子围绕原子核做自转运动的原始驱动力;对于多原子物质聚合形态的分子,在此前论述中,在第四维度轴上的暗物质作为能量粘合剂聚合了单原子物质,使得三维空间分子结构中的阴阳极性在第四维度轴上的磁力线的切割运动,进行着“公转”运动。相似的,分子结构中的物质围绕整体质量磁力线的几何中心做“公转”运动;余此类推,地球自转和其它星系公转运动的原始推动力,都是三维空间中的阴阳两极物质属性与第四维度磁力线做切割运动时电磁感应定理产生。

本文在物理化学一章中,电流现象应该揭示为电磁波在不同微观粒子之间的脉冲现象更为合适,不应揭示为电子在不同原子之间的流动(否则就会出现大量从物质中高速迸发出的正电荷质子的现象,以至于所有电导体都跟放射线元素一样,这很明显是过时的理论理解)。所以分子结构通常也跟原子内部结构一样,在公转过程中有内部中性屏蔽作用,但是更为微弱一些。原因是第四维度暗物质的粘合剂使得分子内部微观粒子相对于第四维度轴的运动更加趋向于平行切线运动,而原子内部粒子相对于第四维度轴的运动是更加趋向于垂直运动。这也使得分子中的微观粒子相对于第四维度轴的磁力线所进行的切割运动产生的电场效应更弱一些。因此,物理化学中单原子形态存在的物质(比如金属)或是单晶体(比如C60)物质的导电性能普遍高于多元素化学物质的导电性能,与暗物质的粘合力特性有很大关联。通常单元素物质形态聚合体所需要的粘合力小于多元素物质形态聚合体。这正好可以从分子在三维空间的数据结论逆向反证出其在第四维度轴上暗物质的粘合力,提供了反证推算方法。

微观粒子结构中的质量磁力线:本文提出质量磁力线概念,微观粒子三维空间中的质量磁力线为质量空间分布和磁场量(可以电荷量衡量)空间分布的函数。因此微观粒子(比如一个分子)的质量磁力线的空间分布几何中心既有异于质量空间分布的几何中心点,也不同于电荷量空间分布的几何中心点;而是二者的相互作用点。而这个质量磁力线的空间几何中心点正好是物质集合体自转运动的中心点(不管是微观原子、分子自旋运动,还是天体旋转运动)。可以推测出,简单原子中的质量磁力线几何中心不是原子核的中心,仅仅可以定义为更加接近于原子核中心点,因为电子质量相对于原子核的质量小很多,原子核中心点近似于整个原子质量几何中心点。所以电子内部运动简化为电子围绕原子核做自转运动也是过于简单的理解。其实是原子核与电子围绕其质量磁力线几何中心做自旋运动。这对于天体物理学中旋转运动理论计算和高分子合成结构的优化提供了理论依据进行3D分子运动模拟。另外,由于正电荷的原子核与负电荷的电子共同围绕原子的质量磁力线几何中心做自转运动,因此两者各自由于自转产生的电磁波的基本要素特性有显著不同,有待进一步论述。这对下一步物质的光谱分析的应用有重要意义。



In the previous paper, the magnetic line on the fourth dimension axis is introduced to reveal the generation of universal gravitation. At present, the academic viewpoints are supplemented and modified as: atom is the most primitive material form of elementary particles; in our three-dimensional space, the motion model of elementary particles in atom can be simplified as the rotation of electrons around the nucleus, and the nuclei and electrons are the negative and positive poles of matter's magnetic properties; at the same time, the magnetic line on the fourth dimension axis is perpendicular to the three-dimensional space. These elementary particles cut along the magnetic line of on the fourth dimensional axis, thus generating electric charges. The existence of the electromagnetic induction theorem is the original driving force for electrons to rotate around the nucleus; for molecules with poly-atomic aggregation form, in the previous discussion, the dark matter on the fourth dimensional axis as an energy binder polymerizes mono-atomic matter, which makes the cutting motion on magnetic lines of the fourth axis, leading to ‘the revolution movement’. Similarly, the matter in molecular structure makes "revolution" around the geometric center of the magnetic mass line; by analogy, the original driving force of the earth's rotation and the revolution of other galaxies are generated by the electromagnetic induction theorem when the material properties of Yin and Yang poles in three-dimensional space are cutting the fourth dimensional magnetic line.

In the chapter of physical chemistry, the current phenomenon should be revealed as the pulse phenomenon of electromagnetic waves between different atoms or molecules, rather than the flow of electrons between different atoms (otherwise, there will be a large number of positively charged protons bursting out at high speed, so that all electric conductors are the same as radioactive elements, which is obviously out of date). Therefore, the molecular structure is usually similar to the internal structure of the atom, which leads to internal neutralization and shield effect during the revolution motion, but it is weaker. The reason is that the binder of the fourth dimension dark matter makes the movement of elementary particles inside molecules more parallel to the fourth dimension axis, while the motion of particles inside atoms is more vertical relatively to the fourth dimension axis. This also makes the electric field effect by the cutting motion of the elementary particles in the molecules relative to the magnetic line of fourth axis is weaker, compared with atoms. Therefore, in physical chemistry, the conductivity of single atom materials (such as metals) or single element crystals (such as C60) is generally higher than that of multi-elements chemical compounds, which is closely related to the adhesion properties of dark matter. Generally, the adhesive force required by single element polymer is less than that of multi-elements form polymer. It provides the inverse deduced/demonstrated methods through the data conclusion of molecules in three-dimensional space to extrapolate the adhesion of dark matter on the fourth dimension axis.

Magnetic mass lines in micro-particle structure: the concept of magnetic mass line is proposed in this paper. The magnetic mass line in three-dimensional space of micro particles is a function of the spatial distribution of both mass and magnetic field (magnetic fields can be measured by electric charges). Therefore, the geometric center of the spatial distribution of the magnetic mass line within the micro particle (such as a molecule) is not only different from the geometric center point of mass spatial distribution, but also different from the geometric center point of the spatial distribution of electric charges; it is the interaction point of the doubles. The geometric center point of the magnetic mass line is exactly the center point of the rotation motion of the materials aggregated as a whole (such as the rotation motion of electrons in atom, molecule revolution motion discussed above, or celestial rotation motion). It can be inferred that the geometric center of the magnetic mass line in a atom is not the center of the nucleus, which can only be interpreted to be closer to the nuclear center point, because the electron mass is much smaller than the nuclear mass, and the nuclear center point is closer to the geometric center point of the whole atomic mass. Therefore, it is too simple to simplify that the internal motion of the electron in an atom is defined as the rotation of the electrons around the nucleus. In fact, both the nucleus and the electron rotate around the geometric center of its magnetic mass line of an atom. This provides a basis for the theoretical calculation of rotational motion in astrophysics and the optimization of synthetic structure of polymers by 3D simulation of molecule movement.In addition, since the nucleus of positive charge and the electron of negative charge rotate around the geometric center of the magnetic mass field line in atom respectively, the characteristics of electromagnetic waves generated by each rotation should be significant different in the element properties of electromagnetic waves from each other, which needs to be further discussed. This leads to significant effects on the spectral analysis on materials in the next.
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 楼主| 发表于 2020-12-23 10:37:21 | 显示全部楼层
微观粒子结构中的质量磁力线:本文提出质量磁力线概念,微观粒子三维空间中的质量磁力线为质量空间分布和磁场量(可以电荷量衡量)空间分布的函数。因此微观粒子(比如一个分子)的质量磁力线的空间分布几何中心既有异于质量空间分布的几何中心点,也不同于电荷量空间分布的几何中心点;而是二者的相互作用点。而这个质量磁力线的空间几何中心点正好是物质集合体自转运动的中心点(不管是微观原子、分子自旋运动,还是天体旋转运动)。可以推测出,简单原子中的质量磁力线几何中心不是原子核的中心,仅仅可以定义为更加接近于原子核中心点,因为电子质量相对于原子核的质量小很多,原子核中心点近似于整个原子质量几何中心点。所以电子内部运动简化为电子围绕原子核做自转运动也是过于简单的理解。其实是原子核与电子围绕其质量磁力线几何中心做自旋运动。这对于天体物理学中旋转运动理论计算和高分子合成结构的优化提供了理论依据进行3D分子运动模拟。另外,由于正电荷的原子核与负电荷的电子共同围绕原子的质量磁力线几何中心做自转运动,因此两者各自由于自转产生的电磁波的基本要素特性有显著不同,有待进一步论述。这对下一步物质的电磁波谱分析的应用有重要意义。比如,γ射线的特性应当揭示为正电荷原子核围绕原子质量磁力线的几何中心做自转运动产生的电磁波。与电子产生的电磁波谱相比,γ射线产生的电磁波不仅由于自转半径更小导致波长更短,频率更高,而且由于其能量集中导致其穿透性、与能量远远高于电子产生电磁波。本文认为正电荷原子核围绕原子质量磁力线的几何中心做自转运动产生的电磁波与电子产生电磁波相比,传播速度更快(两者电磁波传播速度不会相同),而且由于两者之间的电荷相异,电磁波的波峰点和波谷点所带极性在两种电磁波之间也相反。这就是为什么γ射线穿透力很高的主要原因。
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 楼主| 发表于 2020-12-23 14:46:32 | 显示全部楼层
本文在之前的文章中引入了第四维度轴上的磁力线揭示了万有引力的产生。现今补充修改如下观点:原子是基本粒子最原始的物质形态;我们所在的三维空间中,原子中的基本粒子运动模型可以简化为电子围绕原子核做自转运动,原子核与电子为物质磁场属性的阴阳两极;与此同时,第四维度轴上的磁力线与三维空间垂直,阴阳两极基本粒子在第四维度轴的磁力线上做切割运动,从而产生了电荷。电磁感应定理的存在,是电子围绕原子核做自转运动的原始驱动力;对于多原子物质聚合形态的分子,在此前论述中,在第四维度轴上的暗物质作为能量粘合剂聚合了单原子物质,使得三维空间分子结构中的阴阳极性在第四维度轴上的磁力线的切割运动,进行着“公转”运动。相似的,分子结构中的物质围绕整体质量磁力线的几何中心做“公转”运动;余此类推,地球自转和其它星系公转运动的原始推动力,都是三维空间中的阴阳两极物质属性与第四维度磁力线做切割运动时电磁感应定理产生。

本文在物理化学一章中,电流现象应该揭示为电磁波在不同微观粒子之间的脉冲现象更为合适,不应揭示为电子在不同原子之间的流动(否则就会出现大量从物质中高速迸发出的正电荷质子的现象,以至于所有电导体都跟放射线元素一样,这很明显是过时的理论理解)。所以分子结构通常也跟原子内部结构一样,在公转过程中有内部中性屏蔽作用,但是更为微弱一些。原因是第四维度暗物质的粘合剂使得分子内部微观粒子相对于第四维度轴的运动更加趋向于平行切线运动,而原子内部粒子相对于第四维度轴的运动是更加趋向于垂直运动。这也使得分子中的微观粒子相对于第四维度轴的磁力线所进行的切割运动产生的电场效应更弱一些。因此,物理化学中单原子形态存在的物质(比如金属)或是单晶体(比如C60)物质的导电性能普遍高于多元素化学物质的导电性能,与暗物质的粘合力特性有很大关联。通常单元素物质形态聚合体所需要的粘合力小于多元素物质形态聚合体。这正好可以从分子在三维空间的数据结论逆向反证出其在第四维度轴上暗物质的粘合力,提供了反证推算方法。

微观粒子结构中的质量磁力线:本文提出质量磁力线概念,微观粒子三维空间中的质量磁力线为质量空间分布和磁场量(可以电荷量衡量)空间分布的函数。因此微观粒子(比如一个分子)的质量磁力线的空间分布几何中心既有异于质量空间分布的几何中心点,也不同于电荷量空间分布的几何中心点;而是二者的相互作用点。而这个质量磁力线的空间几何中心点正好是物质集合体自转运动的中心点(不管是微观原子、分子自旋运动,还是天体旋转运动)。可以推测出,简单原子中的质量磁力线几何中心不是原子核的中心,仅仅可以定义为更加接近于原子核中心点,因为电子质量相对于原子核的质量小很多,原子核中心点近似于整个原子质量几何中心点。所以电子内部运动简化为电子围绕原子核做自转运动也是过于简单的理解。其实是原子核与电子围绕其质量磁力线几何中心做自旋运动。这对于天体物理学中旋转运动理论计算和高分子合成结构的优化提供了理论依据进行3D分子运动模拟。另外,由于正电荷的原子核与负电荷的电子共同围绕原子的质量磁力线几何中心做自转运动,因此两者各自由于自转产生的电磁波的基本要素特性有显著不同,有待进一步论述。这对下一步物质的电磁波谱分析的应用有重要意义。比如,γ射线的特性应当揭示为正电荷原子核围绕原子质量磁力线的几何中心做自转运动产生的电磁波。与电子产生的电磁波谱相比,γ射线产生的电磁波不仅由于自转半径更小导致波长更短,频率更高,而且由于其能量集中导致其穿透性、与能量远远高于电子产生电磁波。本文认为正电荷原子核围绕原子质量磁力线的几何中心做自转运动产生的电磁波与电子产生电磁波相比,传播速度更快(两者电磁波传播速度不会相同),而且由于两者之间的电荷相异,电磁波的波峰点和波谷点所带极性在两种电磁波之间也相反。这就是为什么γ射线穿透力很高的主要原因。比如,如果原子核产生的电磁波波峰定义为阳极,波谷定义为阴极;则电子产生的电磁波波峰定义为阴极,波谷定义为阳极。能量流密度很高的γ射线从逆向传播方向与电子产生的电磁波相接触,则可以容易中和并且穿透。因此对于电磁波的波粒二象性定理,本文应当把波峰与波谷的极性作为基本要素进行分析,这与机械波有所不同。

In the previous paper, the magnetic line on the fourth dimension axis is introduced to reveal the generation of universal gravitation. At present, the academic viewpoints are supplemented and modified as: atom is the most primitive material form of elementary particles; in our three-dimensional space, the motion model of elementary particles in atom can be simplified as the rotation of electrons around the nucleus, and the nuclei and electrons are the negative and positive poles of matter's magnetic properties; at the same time, the magnetic line on the fourth dimension axis is perpendicular to the three-dimensional space. These elementary particles cut along the magnetic line of on the fourth dimensional axis, thus generating electric charges. The existence of the electromagnetic induction theorem is the original driving force for electrons to rotate around the nucleus; for molecules with poly-atomic aggregation form, in the previous discussion, the dark matter on the fourth dimensional axis as an energy binder polymerizes mono-atomic matter, which makes the cutting motion on magnetic lines of the fourth axis, leading to ‘the revolution movement’. Similarly, the matter in molecular structure makes "revolution" around the geometric center of the magnetic mass line; by analogy, the original driving force of the earth's rotation and the revolution of other galaxies are generated by the electromagnetic induction theorem when the material properties of Yin and Yang poles in three-dimensional space are cutting the fourth dimensional magnetic line.

In the chapter of physical chemistry, the current phenomenon should be revealed as the pulse phenomenon of electromagnetic waves between different atoms or molecules, rather than the flow of electrons between different atoms (otherwise, there will be a large number of positively charged protons bursting out at high speed, so that all electric conductors are the same as radioactive elements, which is obviously out of date). Therefore, the molecular structure is usually similar to the internal structure of the atom, which leads to internal neutralization and shield effect during the revolution motion, but it is weaker. The reason is that the binder of the fourth dimension dark matter makes the movement of elementary particles inside molecules more parallel to the fourth dimension axis, while the motion of particles inside atoms is more vertical relatively to the fourth dimension axis. This also makes the electric field effect by the cutting motion of the elementary particles in the molecules relative to the magnetic line of fourth axis is weaker, compared with atoms. Therefore, in physical chemistry, the conductivity of single atom materials (such as metals) or single element crystals (such as C60) is generally higher than that of multi-elements chemical compounds, which is closely related to the adhesion properties of dark matter. Generally, the adhesive force required by single element polymer is less than that of multi-elements form polymer. It provides the inverse deduced/demonstrated methods through the data conclusion of molecules in three-dimensional space to extrapolate the adhesion of dark matter on the fourth dimension axis.

Magnetic mass lines in micro-particle structure: the concept of magnetic mass line is proposed in this paper. The magnetic mass line in three-dimensional space of micro particles is a function of the spatial distribution of both mass and magnetic field (magnetic fields can be measured by electric charges). Therefore, the geometric center of the spatial distribution of the magnetic mass line within the micro particle (such as a molecule) is not only different from the geometric center point of mass spatial distribution, but also different from the geometric center point of the spatial distribution of electric charges; it is the interaction point of the doubles. The geometric center point of the magnetic mass line is exactly the center point of the rotation motion of the materials aggregated as a whole (such as the rotation motion of electrons in atom, molecule revolution motion discussed above, or celestial rotation motion). It can be inferred that the geometric center of the magnetic mass line in a atom is not the center of the nucleus, which can only be interpreted to be closer to the nuclear center point, because the electron mass is much smaller than the nuclear mass, and the nuclear center point is closer to the geometric center point of the whole atomic mass. Therefore, it is too simple to simplify that the internal motion of the electron in an atom is defined as the rotation of the electrons around the nucleus. In fact, both the nucleus and the electron rotate around the geometric center of its magnetic mass line of an atom. This provides a basis for the theoretical calculation of rotational motion in astrophysics and the optimization of synthetic structure of polymers by 3D simulation of molecule movement.In addition, since the nucleus of positive charge and the electron of negative charge rotate around the geometric center of the magnetic mass field line in atom respectively, the characteristics of electromagnetic waves generated by each rotation should be significant different in the element properties of electromagnetic waves from each other, which needs to be further discussed. This is of great significance to the application on the electromagnetic spectrum analysis in the next. For example, the properties of γray should explained as the electromagnetic waves generated by the rotation of positively charged nucleus around the geometric center of magnetic mass field line in atom. Compared to the electromagnetic spectrum produced by electrons, the electromagnetic waves produced by γray does not only have shorter wavelengths and higher frequencies because of their smaller rotation radius, but also leads to higher penetration capacity due to its energy of higher intensity in nucleus, and the energy of electromagnetic waves produced by nucleus is much higher than the electron consequently. In this paper, it is to further present that the electromagnetic wave produced by the rotation of positively charged nucleus around the geometric center of the atomic mass magnetic field line transmits at faster speed than the electromagnetic wave produced by an electron. Further because of the electric charge difference between the nucleus and the electrons, the wave crest peak and the wave trough bottom point have opposite polarity between these two electromagnetic waves respectively. This is the main reason why the γray penetration capacity is high. For example, if the wave peaks of the electromagnetic waves produced by the nucleus are defined as the anode and the bottom points of waves are defined as the cathode respectively, then the peaks of the electromagnetic waves produced by the electrons are defined as the cathode and the trough bottoms are the anode correspondingly. γRadiation of high energy flow density can easily neutralize and penetrate the electromagnetic waves generated by electrons when they transmit to meet each other in the opposite direction. Therefore, for the wave-particle duality analysis of electromagnetic waves, the polarity of the peaks and bottoms of waves should be analyzed as a basic element in this paper, which is different from that of mechanical waves.
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