Liu Huan (1983-), Master of Science (First Class Honours), The University of Auckland.

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Atom and quantum mechanics/原子与量子力学

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发表于 2020-12-12 16:08:48 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
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 楼主| 发表于 2020-12-31 11:12:58 | 显示全部楼层
Article 1. Auantum Mechanics/量子力学

Author: Liu Huan, MSc (First Class Honours), The University of Auckland.

1.When the charged micro-particles beams (including proton or electron beams --- it is assumed that the atoms after the electronic acceleration process is closed to the karyorrhexis condition in particle collider facility) collides with the materials of neutral atoms, under the condition that the law of electromagnetic induction can be ignored, the kinetic mechanics of a beam of charged micro-particles only conforms to the principle of fluid mechanics (such as pressure calculations), and is not applicable on the mechanical energy law of solid collision (such as conservation of momentum).When the pressures produced by the beams of charged particles is enough, it is able to collide the nucleus of atoms, achieving the karyorrhexis of nucleus atoms. There are two reasons: the neutral magnetic field in atoms shields the approaching charged micro-particles; the dark matter underlay in the fourth dimension space of the atoms materials being collided also affects the motion of a beam of charged micro-particles. Once a charged micro-particles stream approaches the aggregation of dark matter, dark matter produces a non-linear resistance buffer force. These two forces lead the charged micro-particles pass along the sides of atoms materials, so that only the principle of fluid mechanics is applicable.

2. From the viewpoint of force analysis on micro-particles, the momentum theorem  is applicable between two objects’ collision only if the two objects are endowed with the forces of the same nature. In this physical case, the charged micro-particles beams are drived by Coulomb force, wherease the atoms substances is given the mechanical force (it is unreasonable to conduct force analysis separately on the necleus or electron within the neutral atom in this physical simulation case). Additionally, the dark matter produces non-linear buffer mutual forces among micro-objects including atoms or molecules, which leads the physical simulation of momentum theorem and conservation theorem of mechanical energy to be not applicable again. Consequently, the momentum theorem and conservation theorem of mechanical energy is applicable on the macro-physical solid objects only as approximate calculations, but is not applicable on the micro-physical simulations of particles motion.  

3. The basic unit of elementary micro-particle partition and classification should be based on the basic unit of Coulomb force, which can be divided into three categories only: proton, electron and neutron. These elementary micro-particles randomly fluctuate along the fourth dimension axis, so the mass of micro-particles in the three dimensions space isn't constant. The mass M of elementary particles in three-dimensional space is a compound trigonometric function of time variable T and natural constant e (≈ 2.718281828459045). The smaller micro-particles (such as Quark) partitioned by the large particle collider technology are the proportional/partial mass of the elementary micro-particles occurring in the three-dimensional space at a certain time. Therefore, the physical parameters such as mass and charge in the experimental results should be defined as a variable that comforts to the probability distribution law in Statistics (different from the constant or irregular variables). Consequently, this kind of research method and technology should focus on the exploration of the movement law of elementary micro-particles on the four-dimensional axis, which is given more application significance, such as the foundation research of new materials synthesis.





































1.带电微观粒子束(其中包括质子或电子束---在大型粒子对撞机中经过电子加速器程序之后的带电微观粒子可以接近或近似认为达到了原子裂解状态)碰撞中性的原子物质,在电磁感应定律可以忽略不计的条件下, 一束带电微观粒子流的运动力学从概率统计上的规律是只符合流体力学原理(比如压强),不符合固体碰撞机械能规律(比如没有动量守恒定理之类)。从一束带电微观粒子流来分析,当其产生的压强足够大,可以使得被碰撞的中性原子破裂,撞击原子内部的质子或中子,从而产生核裂解。其中的原因是中性的原子内部能量场不仅对前来撞击的带电粒子形成屏蔽作用,而且被碰撞的原子物质集合体还受到第四维度空间的暗物质的作用,当一束带电微观粒子流一旦接近暗物质的集合体,暗物质则产生一种非直线型抵抗缓冲力。以上两种作用使带电粒子从原子物质的侧边擦过,从而只有流体力学的原理;
2.从力学角度分析,两个物体之间碰撞,只有在两个物体都赋予同性质力的条件下,才能适用于动量定理。 带电质子(或电子)束碰撞中性的原子,前者为库仑力,后者为机械力(不应分割中性原子中的原子核与电子做受力分析,这不科学),两者力的性质不同,不适用于动量定理计算式。此外,微观原子或是分子之间由于暗物质作用而产生的一种非直线性缓冲相互作用力,使得动量定理和机械能守恒定理模拟所要求的物理条件变得不再适用。因此动量定理和机械能守恒定理仅仅适用于宏观物理固体物体,并且是一种近似计算, 并不适用于微观物理粒子运动模拟条件。
3. 微观粒子的最基本分割单位应以库仑力的基本单位作为基准而划分,仅为质子、电子、中子三类。基本微观粒子在第四维度轴上做随机型几何波动,因此其质量在三维空间不是恒定的,即基本粒子在三维空间的质量M为时间变量T与自然常数e(≈ 2.718281828459045)的复合三角函数。使用大型粒子对撞机技术对基本粒子进行分割之后的更为细小的微观粒子(比如夸克)为基本微观粒子在某一特定时间点出现在三维空间的质量,因此其实验结果中的质量与电荷量等物理参数应当定义为在统计学上服从概率分布的一种变量(与恒定的常量或是无规律的变量相区别),从而反映出了基本微观粒子在第四维度轴的运动规律,所以该类研究方法与技术应侧重于基本微观粒子在四维度轴上运动规律的探究更为具备现实的意义,比如新材料的基础型研究。






This is the revised materials of Chapter 11 in book “Proceedings for Degree of Postgraduate Diploma in Environmental Science (3rd Edition).” published in 2016. Revised on 31/12/2020.  

References:
All the science terms in English of this journal source from Wikipedia:
https://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/;
本文所有中文科学专业术语引用自百度百科 https://baike.baidu.com/

Article 2: The particle dualism of electromagnetic waves /电磁波的波粒二象性

Author: Liu Huan, MSc (First Class Honours), The University of Auckland.


1.The wave-particle duality of electromagnetic waves
Magnetic mass lines in micro-particle structure: the concept of magnetic mass line is proposed in this paper. The magnetic mass line in three-dimensional space of micro particles is a function of the spatial distribution of both mass and magnetic field (magnetic fields can be measured by electric charges). Therefore, the geometric center of the spatial distribution of the magnetic mass line within the micro particle (such as a molecule) is not only different from the geometric center point of mass spatial distribution, but also different from the geometric center point of the spatial distribution of electric charges; it is the interaction point of the doubles. The geometric center point of the magnetic mass line is exactly the center point of the rotation motion of the materials aggregated as a whole (such as the rotation motion of electrons in atom, molecule revolution motion discussed above, or celestial rotation motion). It can be inferred that the geometric center of the magnetic mass line in a atom is not the center of the nucleus, which can only be interpreted to be closer to the nuclear center point, because the electron mass is much smaller than the nuclear mass, and the nuclear center point is closer to the geometric center point of the whole atomic mass. Therefore, it is too simple to simplify that the internal motion of the electron in an atom is defined as the rotation of the electrons around the nucleus. In fact, both the nucleus and the electron rotate around the geometric center of its magnetic mass line of an atom. This provides a basis for the theoretical calculation of rotational motion in astrophysics and the optimization of synthetic structure of polymers by 3D simulation of molecule movement.In addition, since the nucleus of positive charge and the electron of negative charge rotate around the geometric center of the magnetic mass field line in atom respectively, the characteristics of electromagnetic waves generated by each rotation should be significant different in the element properties of electromagnetic waves from each other, which needs to be further discussed. This is of great significance to the application on the electromagnetic spectrum analysis in the next. For example, the properties of γray should explained as the electromagnetic waves generated by the rotation of positively charged nucleus around the geometric center of magnetic mass field line in atom. Compared to the electromagnetic spectrum produced by electrons, the electromagnetic waves produced by γray does not only have shorter wavelengths and higher frequencies because of their smaller rotation radius, but also leads to higher penetration capacity due to its energy of higher intensity in nucleus, and the energy of electromagnetic waves produced by nucleus is much higher than the electron consequently. In this paper, it is to further present that the electromagnetic wave produced by the rotation of positively charged nucleus around the geometric center of the atomic mass magnetic field line transmits at faster speed than the electromagnetic wave produced by an electron. Further because of the electric charge difference between the nucleus and the electrons, the wave crest peak and the wave trough bottom point have opposite polarity between these two electromagnetic waves respectively. This is the main reason why the γray penetration capacity is high. For example, if the wave peaks of the electromagnetic waves produced by the nucleus are defined as the anode and the bottom points of waves are defined as the cathode respectively, then the peaks of the electromagnetic waves produced by the electrons are defined as the cathode and the trough bottoms are the anode correspondingly. γRadiation of high energy flow density can easily neutralize and penetrate the electromagnetic waves generated by electrons when they transmit to meet each other in the opposite direction. Therefore, for the wave-particle duality analysis of electromagnetic waves, the polarity of the peaks and bottoms of waves should be analyzed as a basic element in this paper, which is different from that of mechanical waves.

Further discussion: compared with the electron, the radius between the proton and the rotation center in the nucleus is shorter, and the rotation speed is higher, so the energy flow intensity of electromagnetic wave is higher, and the transmission speed of electromagnetic wave is faster. It has been discussed in my previous paper that the refraction or diffraction of light is caused by the interference influences between the magnetic field on the obstacle surface and the polarity of light wave, which is different from mechanical wave. Therefore, different characteristics of materials generates different light refraction or diffraction angles. This is also applicable on the other frequencies of electromagnetic wave.

More over, because our three-dimension space is curved sphere, all the remote objects observed by us are the enlarged images due to the magnifier effects, so the astro-observation data have to be corrected. The electromagnetic wave transmission speed (such as light speed) varies between different magnetism fields (NOT constant), which leads to significant effects on the astro-observation data. These two effects require corrections of data received by astronomy observations.Otherwise it is too different significantly from the real data.









微观粒子结构中的质量磁力线:本文提出质量磁力线概念,微观粒子三维空间中的质量磁力线为质量空间分布和磁场量(可以电荷量衡量)空间分布的函数。因此微观粒子(比如一个分子)的质量磁力线的空间分布几何中心既有异于质量空间分布的几何中心点,也不同于电荷量空间分布的几何中心点;而是二者的相互作用点。而这个质量磁力线的空间几何中心点正好是物质集合体自转运动的中心点(不管是微观原子、分子自旋运动,还是天体旋转运动)。可以推测出,简单原子中的质量磁力线几何中心不是原子核的中心,仅仅可以定义为更加接近于原子核中心点,因为电子质量相对于原子核的质量小很多,原子核中心点近似于整个原子质量几何中心点。所以电子内部运动简化为电子围绕原子核做自转运动也是过于简单的理解。其实是原子核与电子围绕其质量磁力线几何中心做自旋运动。这对于天体物理学中旋转运动理论计算和高分子合成结构的优化提供了理论依据进行3D分子运动模拟。另外,由于正电荷的原子核与负电荷的电子共同围绕原子的质量磁力线几何中心做自转运动,因此两者各自由于自转产生的电磁波的基本要素特性有显著不同,有待进一步论述。这对下一步物质的电磁波谱分析的应用有重要意义。比如,γ射线的特性应当揭示为正电荷原子核围绕原子质量磁力线的几何中心做自转运动产生的电磁波。与电子产生的电磁波谱相比,γ射线产生的电磁波不仅由于自转半径更小导致波长更短,频率更高,而且由于其能量集中导致其穿透性、与能量远远高于电子产生电磁波。本文认为正电荷原子核围绕原子质量磁力线的几何中心做自转运动产生的电磁波与电子产生电磁波相比,传播速度更快(两者电磁波传播速度不会相同),而且由于两者之间的电荷相异,电磁波的波峰点和波谷点所带极性在两种电磁波之间也相反。这就是为什么γ射线穿透力很高的主要原因。比如,如果原子核产生的电磁波波峰定义为阳极,波谷定义为阴极;则电子产生的电磁波波峰定义为阴极,波谷定义为阳极。能量流密度很高的γ射线从逆向传播方向与电子产生的电磁波相接触,则可以容易中和并且穿透。因此对于电磁波的波粒二象性定理,本文应当把波峰与波谷的极性作为基本要素进行分析,这与机械波有所不同。

进一步论述:与电子相比,原子核中质子与自转中心之间的半径更小,自转角速度更高,因此产生的电磁波能量流密度更大,电磁波传播速率更快。之前文章已经论述,光的折射或是衍射现象是由于障碍物表面磁场与光波极性的干涉作用产生的,这与机械波不同。因此不同特性的材料都会产生不同的光的折射或是衍射角度。

再一步延伸,因为我们所在的三维空间是曲型球体,因此产生了放大效应;并且由于电磁波传播在不同星系中由于磁场相异,传播速度是非恒定的。这对于天文观察数据而言,需要进一步进行数据修正,否则相差甚大。

This is the revised materials of Chapter 11 in book “Proceedings for Degree of Postgraduate Diploma in Environmental Science (3rd Edition).” published in 2016. Revised on 31/12/2020.  
References:
All the science terms in English of this journal source from Wikipedia:
https://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/;
本文所有中文科学专业术语引用自百度百科 https://baike.baidu.com/
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 楼主| 发表于 2020-12-12 16:11:39 | 显示全部楼层
1.带电微观粒子束(其中包括质子或电子束---在大型粒子对撞机中经过电子加速器程序之后的带电微观粒子可以接近或近似认为达到了原子裂解状态)碰撞中性的原子物质,在电磁感应定律可以忽略不计的条件下, 一束带电微观粒子流的运动力学从概率统计上的规律是只符合流体力学原理(比如压强),不符合固体碰撞机械能规律(比如没有动量守恒定理之类)。从一束带电微观粒子流来分析,当其产生的压强足够大,可以使得被碰撞的中性原子破裂,撞击原子内部的质子或中子,从而产生核裂解。其中的原因是中性的原子内部能量场不仅对前来撞击的带电粒子形成屏蔽作用,而且被碰撞的原子物质集合体还受到第四维度空间的暗物质的作用,当一束带电微观粒子流一旦接近暗物质的集合体,暗物质则产生一种非直线型抵抗缓冲力。以上两种作用使带电粒子从原子物质的侧边擦过,从而只有流体力学的原理;
2.从力学角度分析,两个物体之间碰撞,只有在两个物体都赋予同性质力的条件下,才能适用于动量定理。 带电质子(或电子)束碰撞中性的原子,前者为库仑力,后者为机械力(不应分割中性原子中的原子核与电子做受力分析,这不科学),两者力的性质不同,不适用于动量定理计算式。此外,微观原子或是分子之间由于暗物质作用而产生的一种非直线性缓冲相互作用力,使得动量定理和机械能守恒定理模拟所要求的物理条件变得不再适用。因此动量定理和机械能守恒定理仅仅适用于宏观物理固体物体,并且是一种近似计算, 并不适用于微观物理粒子运动模拟条件。
3. 暗物质为第四维度空间中,聚合原子、分子等三维空间微观粒子的能量粘合剂,使得这类粒子像串项链一样生成集合体,从而产生了一种扭力,称为时空扭力,在力学上符合材料的扭矩定理。万有引力、范德华力、原子间作用力都符合时空扭力的性质。稳定型的暗物质微观粒子集合体相对于外来作用破坏力产生非直线型缓冲对抗力,这就是扭矩定理的产生原理。暗物质的粘合力符合流体力学的定理;本文把固体材料中的扭矩定理作为例子,与气态、液态物质相比更为稳定,受到较少其它外力因素干扰。暗物质的存在,使得能量在不同性质间(比如机械能与磁场能之间)的转换必须建立在四维空间上,仅仅是三维空间中的转换定理是无法成立的。
4. 反物质原理。原子间作用力,除了共价键力是对称时空之间的库仑力性质,其余的都可以归为上述力学。共价键力是两个对称三维空间之间的库仑力作用。其中我们所在的三维空间质子带正电荷、电子带负电荷;则在第四维度轴上与它对应的对称三维空间中的质子带负电荷、电子带正电荷,即为反物质。在讨论原子内部粒子运动规律和受力分析时候,我们常常简化为负电荷电子围绕正电荷原子核做高速自旋转运动。从电子做单点受力分析,一方面是离心力的作用,另一方面是正负电荷产生的向心力作用,从而实现受力平衡;但是从原子核做单点受力分析,正电荷原子核受到库仑力产生的与向心力对应的拉力,如何做平衡受力分析?这个问题在单原子形态存在的氢原子(比如恒星天体物质)中尤其明显。更进一步讨论原子物理之后,原子(比如放射性元素)在半衰期后为何正负粒子之间不会由于库仑力的相互吸引力而在原子内部合并中和?而是带电粒子高速远离并射出原子外?这些命题都必须借助本文提出的对称三维物质空间中的反物质原理才能解决。再进一步讨论更为复杂的情景:比如两个共价键配对的原子。原子1中有电子1和质子1;原子2中有电子2和质子2。 其中负电荷电子1在第四维度轴上受其对应的对称三维时空中对应的正电荷电子牵引,并在自身三维时空中形成共价键的原子2中的其中一个正电荷质子2可以配对牵引,而这个正电荷质子2又可与自身原子中的另一个对应负电荷电子2牵引,最后这个负电荷电子2又在第四维度轴上受其对应的对称三维时空中正电荷电子牵引配对。这个串联关系同样作用于电子2-质子1-电子1. 这就像多个串联电池一样正负极、正负极。。。循环连接。
5. 微观粒子的最基本分割单位应以库仑力的基本单位作为基准而划分,仅为质子、电子、中子三类。基本微观粒子在第四维度轴上做随机型几何波动,因此其质量在三维空间不是恒定的,即基本粒子在三维空间的质量M为时间变量T与自然常数e(≈ 2.718281828459045)的复合三角函数。使用大型粒子对撞机技术对基本粒子进行分割之后的更为细小的微观粒子(比如夸克)为基本微观粒子在某一特定时间点出现在三维空间的质量,因此其实验结果中的质量与电荷量等物理参数应当定义为在统计学上服从概率分布的一种变量(与恒定的常量或是无规律的变量相区别),从而反映出了基本微观粒子在第四维度轴的运动规律,所以该类研究方法与技术应侧重于基本微观粒子在四维度轴上运动规律的探究更为具备现实的意义,比如新材料的基础型研究。
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