My another article firstly proposes that creatures would be hatched in stars, whose metabolites become the sources of new mass in our universe (myth stories?) . Here my article further argues that the spectral lines indicating different chemistry elements at different life stages of star would represent the bio-signals of creatures hatched in the stars. At the ‘larva’ stage of creature, the creatures are hatched by highest temperature. At this stage (Stage O), the star spectral lines of ionized helium, neutral helium, and hydrogen indicate the nuclear fusion in the star reactor, while the spectral lines of weak secondary ionized carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen indicate the organic elements at larva stage of creatures. With the growth of this creature, the spectral lines (Stage B and A) of organic elements become stronger and the temperature required to hatch the creatures decreases. When they turns to be mature, the organic elements of soft organs turn to be hard organs, so metal elements become one of the main components (Stage F, G, K). At the advanced stage, the hard organs of creatures contain heavier metal elements than the mature stage (Stage M) and the advanced creatures yield their offspring creatures, so strong molecular bands of carbon and oxygen indicating larva stage of creatures are added again at R and N star stages.
Next it is to selectively review the theories with regards to physical properties of star, which can be understandable and validated by empirical data:
The relationship between the mass and lifespan of star usually is defined as: the larger the mass of a star, the shorter its lifespan, mainly because the pressure in the core of the star with heavier mass is correspondingly enhanced, resulting in faster burning rate of hydrogen. Consequently, many super massive stars have an average lifespan of only one million years, but the lightest stars (such as red dwarf) burn their fuel at a very slow rate relatively, and their lifespan can correspondingly last for tens to trillions of years .
The magnetic field of a star originates from the region where the convection cycle of gas substances occurs within the star, similar to a conductive plasma generator causing the magnetic field to extend in stars. The intensity of the magnetic field changes with the mass and composition of the star, and the total amount of surface magnetic activity is depended on the speed of Stellar rotation, which can produce star spots where the surface magnetic field is stronger than normal and the temperature is lower than normal .
Due to the activity of magnetic fields, young and high-speed rotating stars tend to perform as high surface activity, which also enhances stellar winds, but the rate of rotation gradually slows down as the star ages. Therefore, stars as old as the sun rotate at a lower rate, and their surface activities are correspondingly mild without strong stellar winds. Stars with slow rotation tend to exhibit periodic changes in surface activity and may temporarily cease activity during the cycle .
My article here further discusses the increasing incidence of Solar flare caused by the aging of the sun. With the aging of solar nuclear reactor, the magnetic field tends to be uneven distribution occasionally (such as leakage of inner pressure) so that the convection between different gas substance layers in the sun is disturbed; secondly, the slowing down of solar rotation speed also leads to solar winds on the surfaces, both of which become the reasons to increase the solar flare events.
With the aging of star with lower mass (such as the sun), stars expand at the first senescence stage, when the star is called ‘Red Giant’ that collapses and becomes a ‘White dwarf.’ White dwarf further radiates and loses energy, then turning into a ‘Black dwarf,’ and finally disappears .
With the senescence of massive star at a density of not less than 7 times of solar density, stars become a ‘Red supergiant,’ which ends its life in the form of a supernova explosion and eventually becomes a Neutron star or a Black hole. The Neutron star eventually loses energy, forming a ‘Black dwarf,’ while black hole emits particles outward, perhaps turning into white holes or completely evaporating .
It is to summarize that the senescence forms of stars discussed above, mainly including ‘Red Giant,’ ‘White dwarf,’ ‘Black dwarf,’ ‘Red supergiant,’ ‘Supernova,’ ‘Neutron star’ and ‘Black hole,’ are not only the forms of degenerate matter, but also the sources detecting the gravitational wave. Consequently, it is to further review the relevant theories interpreting each senescence forms of stars below.
Senescence forms of stars
Red giant is a kind of unstable stage experienced by stars in the aging process of burning. According to the Stellar mass, Red giant form can last only for millions of years, whose surface temperature is relatively low with red colour, lifted brightness and huge volume, consequently named as ‘Red Giant.’ The stars are burning by thermonuclear fusion inside them, resulting in nuclear fusion into one helium nucleus from every four hydrogen nuclei, coupled with a large amount of atomic energy and radiation pressure released. Nuclear fusion mainly takes place in its center (core) of star, achieving balance between radiation pressure and its own shrinking gravity.
Under this balance situation, the burning of hydrogen in the star is extremely fast, and the center forms a helium core and keeps increasing. As time goes on, the hydrogen around the helium nucleus decreases, and the energy generated by the central nucleus is no longer sufficient to maintain its radiation, resulting in the disrupted balance with the expression as the contraction of the helium core and the expansion of the hydrogen shell. The Stellar nucleosynthesis of helium core inside the combustion shell shrinks inward and becomes hot, while hydrogen burning in the stellar shell expands outward and keeps cooling, greatly reducing the surface temperature and becoming a Red giant in rapid expansion. The final result of helium core fusion is to form a White dwarf in the center .
White dwarf that is also known as degenerate dwarf is a star with low luminosity, high density and high temperature, named as ‘White Dwarf’ due to its white color and small size. White dwarf is the final stage of a star evolution, which is mainly composed of carbon covered by hydrogen and helium. White dwarf gradually cools and darkens over hundreds of millions of years, turning to be small in size, low in brightness, but high in density and mass. When the outer region of the red giant star expands rapidly, the helium core shrinks strongly inwards due to the reaction force, and the compressed material continues to heat up. The final core temperature will exceed 100 million degrees, so the helium begins to condense into carbon. When the unstable aging state of the star reaches the critical limit, Red giant will explode, throwing the matter outside the core away from the star body, which diffuses outward into a nebula, so that the helium core is left to become the White dwarf that can be seen. As the result of remaining core substances, White dwarf is usually composed of carbon and oxygen. There is no nuclear fusion reaction inside White dwarf, so the star no longer generates energy, which means that the temperature of White dwarf formation is very high at the first stage, but there is no energy source. Therefore, it will gradually release its heat and gradually cool down, with the colour finally turning from white into red. The balance of electron degenerate pressure to the strong gravitational forces of White dwarf maintains its stability of star. However, when the mass of White dwarf further increases, the electron degenerate pressure may not resist its own gravitational contraction, so White dwarf will collapse into more dense forms: Neutron star or Black hole. Another viewpoint is that after a long time, the temperature of White dwarf will cool down to the point where the luminosity can no longer be seen, becoming a cold Black dwarf. However, this viewpoint only stays in theory .
Red supergiant is a massive star on the verge of death, with low temperature and huge radius varying from hundreds to thousands of times of that in the sun. Red supergiant is one of the Supergiant stars, whose volume is one of the largest stars in the universe. After the outer layer expands, the cohesive force which it receives decreases. Even if the temperature decreases, its expansion pressure can still resist or exceed the gravitational force. At this point, the increase in the radius and surface area of the star exceeds the increase in radiation energy production rate. Therefore, although the total luminosity may increase, the surface temperature will decrease. When a big star with the mass higher than 4 times of the Solar mass re-initiates hydrogen fusion outside the helium core, the energy released outside the core does not increase significantly, but the radius increases many times, so the surface temperature drops from tens of thousands of K to 3000~4000 K, becoming a Red supergiant. When small and medium-sized stars with the mass less than 4 times of the Solar mass enter the Red giant stage, their surface temperature drops, but their luminosity increases sharply, because their outer expansion consumes less energy with more radiation energy production capacity .
Supernova is a kind of aging stage in the process of Stellar evolution, which is a violent explosion experienced by stars when they are approaching the end of their evolution, which is extremely bright. The sudden electromagnetic radiation in the explosion can often illuminate the whole galaxy where it is located, and may last for weeks to months before gradually decaying. During this period, the radiation energy released by the explosion can be equal to the total radiation energy of the sun in its lifetime. It is estimated that the probability of supernova explosion in a galaxy like the size of the Milky Way is about once per 50 years, and they play an important role in providing rich heavy elements for Interstellar medium. At the same time, the shock wave generated by the supernova explosion will also compress the nearby Interstellar cloud, which is an important initiating mechanism for the birth of new stars .
Neutron star is one of the few terminal forms that may become after supernova explosion via Gravitational collapse at the end of Stellar evolution, which is a kind of star between White dwarf and Black hole, formed by the collapse of stars whose mass is not enough to form Black holes at the end of their lives. Hydrogen, helium, carbon and other elements in the core of stars are exhausted in nuclear fusion reaction, and when these elements are finally transformed into iron, they cannot obtain energy from nuclear fusion again. The surface temperature of Neutron star is about 1.1 million degrees with χ Radiation, γ Radiation and visible light. The Neutron star forms a very strong magnetic field, which makes the Neutron star emit beams of radio waves along the direction of the magnetic pole. The rotation of Neutron star is very fast, which can reach hundreds of revolutions per second. If the magnetic poles of the Neutron star faces to the earth, then the radio wave beams from the Neutron star will sweep the earth again and again with the rotation like a rotating lighthouse, forming radio pulses, which is consequently called as ‘Pulsar’.
A supermassive Black hole is hidden in the center of most galaxies in the universe, including the Milky Way where we live. The mass of these Black holes varies from 990000 to 40 billion times of Solar mass. The existence of black holes is usually indirectly inferred by detecting the strong radiation and heat from Accretion disk around them. When matter falls under the gravity of a strong black hole, it will form an Accretion disk around it and spiral down. In this formation process, radiation energy will be released quickly, heating the matter to extremely high temperature, thus emitting off strong radiation. Black holes devour surrounding matter through accretion, which may be their way of growth . The past theories explaining Black hole are based on the time-space relativity, which are not reviewed further in my article.
Based on the relevant theories discussed above, next this article selects and reviews case studies in the astronomy research with specific emphasis on the gravitational wave and Black holes, which have been published in China as PhD theses . Then future research gaps in the astronomy observation are discussed on the basis of new theories proposed by my article above.
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Future research gaps in gravitational wave:
According the classification of sources of gravitational wave, the sources of gravitational wave include three types: continuous gravitational wave source (rotating Neutron star, stable binary star system), explosive gravitational wave source (supernova explosion, binary star merger), random Gravitational wave background (astrophysical Gravitational wave background, original Gravitational wave) . Among these sources, the first type of sources (rotating Neutron star, stable binary star system) generate the gravitational wave at highest frequencies with continuous detecting events. According to the physical motion model of gravitational wave generation mechanism newly discussed in my article above, it is deduced that in most cases, the higher the frequencies of gravitational wave, the younger the star form; the stronger intensity of gravitational wave, the heavier mass of the star system (or the stronger gravity per unit mass) to compress the charged elementary particles. Consequently, the first type of sources would be the early stages of star senescence forms. The first objective of future research gap is to correlate the physical properties of the first type of sources (including Rotation period, Revolution cycle, Half length of track projection axis, Track eccentricity, Pulsar mass) with the physical parameters of gravitational waves detected from the corresponding sources, so that new models are capable of being established to extrapolate the development stages on the first type of sources according to the theories discussed above.
For the detecting events with occasional occurrence, which only receive gravitational waves at transient time with lower frequencies, it is further to explain that this star form of the gravitational wave sources would be more aging than the first type of sources, and the occasional occurrence of detecting gravitational waves at transient time would be caused by the unstable resonance of gravity field when binary star merger occurs. When resonance of gravity field happens during binary star merger, the radiation energy of stars will be further released and the elementary particles between binary stars are synthesized into the final state of materials like Black hole one. More specifically, when binary star merger happens, the elementary particles between binary stars absorb radiation energy firstly, turning into excited state with higher energy level and more free form (although this excited free form has not reached the ionization state). Then the elementary particles of excited state with more free form are further synthesized into degenerate matter by the gravity contraction. In this degenerate matter synthesis process, the incident particles and atomic nuclei combine to form into metastable composite nucleus, which subsequently decays into the final stable particles in a period, further releasing radiation energy. This metastable composite nucleus as the combination of incident particles and nuclei is called the resonant state, and the final stable particles would be the final state of degenerate matter compressed by gravity. The knowledge and both excited state and resonant state have been discussed in detail in my another quantum physics paper . Consequently, the second objective is to analyze the excited state of elementary particles between binary stars when resonance of gravitational waves occurs during binary star merger, deducing the energy released during this process.
An original review essay is coming as the second study plan in this year (not less than 12 000 words in English)......
Firstly published on 29/01/2023. Secondly revised on 10AM 30/01/2023. Thirdly revised on 11PM 30/01/2023; Latest revised on 12/06/2023; 13/06/2023; 14/06/2023; 15/06/2023; 20/06/2023 a;b; 21/06/2023; 22/06/2023 a;b; 28/06/2023; 04/07/2023 a;b; 05/07/2023; 18/07/2023; 21/07/2023; 22/07/2023; 24/07/2023 a;b.
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. Liu Huan. (2022). Essay: Electromagnetics and Materials. Journal of Environment and Health Science (ISSN 2314-1628), 2022(11).
. Liu Huan. (2021). The materials, relativity and its philosophy attributes. Journal of Environment and Health Science (ISSN 2314-1628), 2021(2).
. Liu Huan. (2021). The magnetism across time-spaces and the driving force of celestial rotation. Journal of Environment and Health Science (ISSN 2314-1628), 2021(2).
. Liu Huan. (2021). The materials, relativity and its philosophy attributes. Journal of Environment and Health Science (ISSN 2314-1628), 2021(2).
. Liu Huan. (2021). Quantum Mechanics. Journal of Environment and Health Science (ISSN 2314-1628), 2021(02).
. Liu Huan. (2021). The anti-matter of symmetric three-dimensional spaces along the fourth dimension axis. Journal of Environment and Health Science (ISSN 2314-1628), 2021(2).
. Liu Huan. (2021). Ancient Chinese Eight Diagrams and Application on Chemistry Reaction Rate. Journal of Environment and Health Science (ISSN 2314-1628), 2021(02).
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. Liu Huan. (2021). Essay: Quantum and Materials. Journal of Environment and Health Science (ISSN 2314-1628), 2021(12).