Article 5. Electricity and Stability of Electron orbits in Atom/电流与原子中电子运动轨道的稳定性
Author: Liu Huan (1983- ), Master of Science (First Class Honours), The University of Auckland.
The real nature of electricity is the fluids or pulse of electromagnetic waves, rather than electron movement across atoms in conductor materials (otherwise, there will be a large number of positively charged protons bursting out at high speed, so that all electric conductors are the same as radioactive elements, which is obviously out of date). Consequently, the conductivity of different conductor materials, calculated by the same conditions, reveals the stability of electron orbits in atom. The higher conductivity, the less stable for electron orbits. The pulse of electromagnetic waves indicates that the electrons across different atoms fluctuate concurrently along the same direction. Consequently, the less stable for electron orbits, the easier fluctuation movement.
The less symmetry of free electron distribution in molecule, the more conductivity (more free electrons). For example, in the graphite structure unit within which each carbon atom combines with other carbon atoms by forming three covalent bonds, still leaving one free electron as the conductor of charge. For example, C60 is the highly symmetric form in space under normal conditions so that it is not the electric conductor. Once metal atom is synthesized into C60 to alter its symmetry of spatial structure, which leads to the unpaired electrons orbits, superconductivity occurs. In comparison and contrast, the higher symmetry of elementary particle polarity distribution in molecule, the higher magnetic moment for the whole molecule .
Defining the generation mechanism of the electric current effect: the electric current is the energy transfer flow generated by the conduction effect of particles’ acceleration motion between two or more electric pulse wave sources. Electrons produce electromagnetic waves in thermal motion. Because the thermal motion is along irregular orbit, the generated electromagnetic waves are pulsed electromagnetic waves. After the conductor is energized, the electrons at the poles of the power supply firstly accelerate the thermal movement under the effect of the electric field of the power supply, and the frequency of the pulse wave increases, thus transferring the electromagnetic wave energy to the electrons in the middle of the conductor, which makes the conducted electrons accelerate the thermal movement correspondingly. The accelerated thermal motion of electrons along the direction of electromagnetic wave energy conduction is the mechanism of current generation. If the thermal motion orbits are more consistent among conducted electrons along the direction of electromagnetic wave energy conduction, the higher the conductivity of the conductor. The elementary particles in the nucleus move like a spring as longitudinal wave motion on the fourth dimension axis, consequently producing pulse wave . The mechanism of current generation caused by the elementary particles in the nucleus is similar to electrons discussed above, but is different from the electrons in the electron cloud. The electromagnetic wave generated by the irregular thermal motion of electrons in the electronic cloud is transverse wave, while the pulse wave generated by the elementary particle in the nucleus is longitudinal wave, which is the ray wave; The ray waves show stronger penetration capacity and faster transmission speed, whose current effect can efficiently transmit in the vacuum at long distance, so the cosmic rays can be detected more easily than the light wave. Different from the electrons in the electron cloud, the pulse wave current generated by the elementary particles in the nucleus is usually generated under the excited state. The pulse wave energy generated by the elementary particles of excited state in the nucleus of an atom can be transmitted to the elementary particles in the nucleus of other surrounding atoms, accelerating the thermal motion of the particles between different atoms in the forms of conduction, thus generating electric current. In summary, the current effect transmits in the form of electromagnetic wave energy flow, which can propagate in the vacuum conditions.
Please note: This is the revised materials in book “Proceedings for Degree of Postgraduate Diploma in Environmental Science (3rd Edition).” published in 2016. Revised on 28/12/2020. This journal article is previously published as: Liu Huan. (2021). Electricity and Stability of Electron orbits in Atom. Journal of Environment and Health Science (ISSN 2314-1628), 2021(02)., which is converted into Journal of Quantum Physics and Materials Chemistry (ISSN2958-4027) . Both Journals belong to the same publisher, Liu Huan. The previous journal article is closed to the public, but the previous reference is still valid. Latest revised on 19/05/2023; 25/05/2023; 16/08/2023 a;b;17/08/2023.
. 搜狗百科，共享百科全书/Sogou Baike, Creative Commons.
. Liu Huan. (2021). Ancient Chinese Eight Diagrams and Application on Chemistry Reaction Rate. Journal of Environment and Health Science (ISSN 2314-1628), 2021(02). https://doi.org/10.58473/JQPMC0010